Presentation on theme: "Human Rights Grave Violations"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Rights Grave Violations Week 9Human RightsGrave Violations
2Human rights violations occur when any state or non-state actor breaches anypart of international human rights orhumanitarian law. In regard to humanrights violations of United Nations laws.Article 39 of the United Nations chartardesignates the UN Security Council asthe only tribunal that may determine UNhuman rights violations.
3Human rights abuses are monitored by United Nations committees, national institutions and governments and bymany independent non-governmental organizations(Amnesty International, International Federation of HumanRights, human rights Watch, World Organization AgainstTorture, Freedom House, International Freedom OfExpression Exchange, Anti-Slavery International).These organizations collect evidence and documentationof alleged human rights abuses and apply pressure toenforce human rights laws.Wars of aggression, war crimes and crimes againsthumanity including genocide, are breaches of Internationalhumantarian law and represent the most serious of humanrights violations.
4Summary executions:Summary executions are a grave violation of theright to life, involving killings carried out bygovernment agents or with their complicity.This may include death through the use of excessiveforce by the military, police, or security forces.
5Torture:Torture is defined as severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, inflicted by public official or person acting in an official capacity, for such purposes as: obtaining from the person on whom it is inflicted or a third person for an information or a confession; punishing a person for an act which he/she or a third person has committed or is suspected to what have committed; forcing him/her or a third person for any reason based on discrimination of any kind.
6Arbitrary arrest and detention: This involves deprivation of liberty by a public official, such asa member of the military or police, or any other person actingin an official capacity or with official instigation, consentwithout a valid and legal reason, by detaining a person in aprison or other detention facility.
7Discrimination:This can be based on race, sex, national or social origin,political opinion, color, religion, language, birth, property, orother grounds.
8Violence against women: It includes all forms of physical, sexual, and psychological violence whether occurring in the community, in the family (domestic violence), or committed by public officials.
9Genocide:Acts committed with an intent to destroy,in whole or in parta national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, including:• Killing members of the group.• Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members ofthe group.• Inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated tobring about their physical destruction in whole or in part.• Imposing measures intended to prevent births within thegroups.• Forcibly transferring children of the group to anothergroup.
10War crimes:War crimes are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions. They are prohibited acts committed against persons and property protected by the Conventions, including willful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, illegal detention, hostage-taking, the arbitrary and unlawful destruction and of property, and others.
11Deportation and forcible transfer of populations: This includes situations when the inhabitants areforcibly evicted from their place of domicile anddeported to an alien land on any reason. This hasbeen frequently observed during ethnic conflicts.
12Rape and sexual exploitation: Recent conflicts have seen the use of rape as a weapon, especially in ethnic conflicts with the intent, humiliate, and degrade the opposing ethnic community.The International Criminal Tribunal on the Former Yugoslavia has ruled that rape at the instigation of a public official in situations of armed conflict is torture.
13Crimes against humanity: These are serious human rights violations. They include the following acts when they are committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population with knowledge of the attack. These acts are absolutely prohibited under international law:• Murder.• Extermination.• Enslavement.• Torture.• Deportation or the forcible transfer of the population.• Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty.• Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution or sterilization, andforced pregnancy.• Persecution against any political, racial, national, ethnic,cultural, religious or gender group.• Enforced disappearance.