2Session Outline Aggression in contemporary sport What is aggression? Causes of aggressionAggression in sport: Special considerationsImplications for practice
3Aggression in Contemporary Sport NBA Pistons–Pacers brawlNHL player Bertuzzi’s blindsided punch broke vertebra of competitor Steve MooreLocal youth ice hockey coach conducted a drill where players practice fighting
4What Is Aggression?Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment (Baron & Richardson, 1994)
5Criteria for Aggression Aggression is a behavior.Aggression involves harm or injury (physical or psychological).Aggression is directed toward a living organism.Aggression involves intent.
6Types of AggressionHostile or reactive aggression: The primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm on another.Instrumental aggression: Occurring in the quest of some nonaggressive goal.
7Distinction Between Instrumental and Reactive Aggression It is too simplistic to think of instrumental and reactive aggression as a simple dichotomy (they are opposite ends of a continuum).The clear majority of instrumental aggressive acts occur in conjunction with some type of reactive process.At times aggression might involve elements of both hostile and instrumental aggression.
8Causes (Theories) of Aggression Instinct theoryFrustration–aggression hypothesisSocial learning theoryRevised frustration–aggression theoryGeneral model of aggression
9Causes of Aggression Instinct theory: People have an instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed (directly or via catharsis).There is no support for this theory.Frustration–aggression hypothesisAggression is the direct result of a frustration that occurs because of goal blockage or failure.There is no support for this hypothesis.(continued)
10Causes of Aggression (continued) Social learning theoryAggression is learned through observing others (modeling) and then having similar behavior reinforced.There is support for this theory.(continued)
11Causes of Aggression (continued) Revised frustration–aggression theoryCombines elements of frustration–aggression theory with social learning theory.Frustration does not always lead to aggression. It increases the likelihood of aggression by increasing arousal, anger, and other thoughts, feelings, and emotions. Increased arousal and anger result in aggression only when socially learned cues signal the appropriateness of aggression in the situation.There is support for this theory.(continued)
13Causes of Aggression (continued) General aggression modelAggression occurs as a result of a complex process mediated by one's thoughts, feelings, and emotions and resulting from the interaction of numerous personal and situational factors.Support.
14Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations Spectator aggression is associated withsmall-scale, on-the-field aggressive acts;aroused conditions;alcohol use;younger, disadvantaged male spectators; and(in some cases) fan enjoyment.(continued)
15Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations (continued) Game reasoning and aggression: Many athletes view aggression as inappropriate in general but appropriate in the sport environment. This is called bracketed morality.Aggression and athletic injuries: Evidence is amassing to show that aggressive play is related to athletic injuries.(continued)
16Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations (continued) Athletic performance and aggression: No clear pattern has been found, but professionals must decide if they value enhanced performance at the cost of increased aggression.Team moral atmosphere and aggression: Team norms also contribute to the moral atmosphere that influences aggression in athletes as well as coach and peer influences.(continued)
17Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations (continued) Sport-specific aggression determinants include athletes behaving aggressively becausesomeone has committed aggression against them,they are highly ego-oriented and have a low level of moral development,they want to show how tough they are,they see it as part of their role, andthey feel group pressures to be aggressive.(continued)
18Aggression in Sport: Special Considerations (continued) Gender differences: Males exhibit high frequencies of aggression when compared to females.Cultural differences: Aggression in Chinese athletes and Western populations were very similar. Chinese athletes ruminated more about the aggression, suggesting that members of a collectivist culture are less likely to accept aggression as a means of goal achievement.
19Implications for Practice Recognize when aggression is most likely to occur: When people are frustrated and aroused (often when losing or when they perceive unfair officiating, are embarrassed, are physically in pain, or are playing below capabilities).Note: Losing by a large margin, losing to an opponent one is outplaying, and playing poorly are especially important situations related to aggression.(continued)
20Implications for Practice (continued) Control aggression via stress or emotion management training.Keep winning in perspective.Distinguish between aggression and assertive or intense play.Teach nonviolent conflict resolution skills.Teach appropriate behavior.(continued)
21Implications for Practice (continued) Establish team norms.Control spectator aggression.Develop strict alcohol control policies.Immediately penalize spectators for aggressive acts.Hire officials who don’t tolerate aggression.Inform coaches that aggression won’t be tolerated.Work with media not to glorify aggressive acts.
22Playing Tough and Clean Hockey Intervention Session 1: The notion of aggression as macho or cool is de-emphasized and empathy and compassion for opponents emphasized. Distinction made between aggressive (dirty) and assertive (clean) play.Session 2: The role emotions in hockey and how one’s emotions are related to aggression are discussed. The importance of controlling emotions via deep breathing is emphasized.(continued)
23Playing Tough and Clean Hockey Intervention (continued) Session 3: A four-step plan for controlling emotions. Steps are: Respond positively to emotions, identify one’s emotional hot buttons, develop a new response to emotional hot buttons, and develop a practice strategy to practice on-ice emotional control. The 3R (respond, relax, refocus) emotional management routine is taught to the players.(continued)
24Playing Tough and Clean Hockey Intervention (continued) Sessions 4, 5, and 6: Arousal and stress management techniques like goal setting and imagery are taught, practiced, and self- monitored by players.Sessions 7, 8, and 9: Players practice skills and use them in games. Self-regulation is emphasized, goals are set, and emotions are self-monitored. Game video is reviewed and discussed.
25ISSP Position Stand on Aggression and Violence in Sport Recommendation 1: Management should make fundamental penalty revisions so that rule-violating behavior results in punishments that have greater punitive value than potential reinforcement.Recommendation 2: Management must ensure proper coaching of teams, particularly at junior levels, that emphasizes a fair-play code of conduct among participants.(continued)
26ISSP Position Stand on Aggression and Violence in Sport (continued) Recommendation 3: Management should ban the use of alcoholic beverages at sport events.Recommendation 4: Management must make sure facilities are adequate regarding catering and spacing needs and the provision of modern amenities.(continued)
27ISSP Position Stand on Aggression and Violence in Sport (continued) Recommendation 5: The media must place in proper perspective the isolated incidents of aggression that occur in sport rather than make them “highlights.”Recommendation 6: The media should promote a campaign to decrease violence and hostile aggression in sport, which involves the participation of athletes, coaches, management, officials, and spectators.(continued)
28ISSP Position Stand on Aggression and Violence in Sport (continued) Recommendation 7: Coaches, managers, athletes, media, officials, and authority figures (i.e., police) should take part in workshops on aggression to ensure they understand the topic and ways it can be controlled.Recommendation 8: Coaches, managers, officials, and the media should encourage athletes to engage in prosocial behavior and should punish those who perform hostile acts.(continued)
29ISSP Position Stand on Aggression and Violence in Sport (continued) Recommendation 9: Athletes should take part in programs aimed at helping them reduce behavioral tendencies toward aggression. The tightening of rules, imposing of harsher penalties, and changing of reinforcement patterns are only parts of the answer to inhibiting aggression in sport. Ultimately, the athlete must assume responsibility.