Presentation on theme: "The Basics Unit One Weather, Climate, 5 Themes. The Nitty Gritty: Need to Know Terms Geography: The study of how humans interact with the physical features."— Presentation transcript:
The Nitty Gritty: Need to Know Terms Geography: The study of how humans interact with the physical features of the earth. Prime Meridian Longitude Equator Latitude Tropic of Cancer Latitude Tropic of Capricorn Latitude
The 5 Themes of Geography Location – Where is it? Absolute Location: Exactly where it is on earth – latitude and longitude cordintates. Relative Location: Describes a place in comparison to places around it…next to the big red barn
The 5 Themes of Geography Place – What is it like? Physical features, cultural characteristics, climate, landforms, vegetation…all that make them unique from other places.
The 5 Themes of Geography Region – How are places similar or different? Characteristics that unify areas together – Physical – Political – Economic – Cultural » Example: Midwest in the United States
The 5 Themes of Geography Human-Envrionmental Interaction – How do people relate to the physical world? How do your activities change with each season?
The 5 Themes of Geography Movement - How Do People, Goods, and Ideas Get from One Place to Another? Geographers use three types of distance to analyze movement: -linear distance -time distance -psychological distance
Natural Disasters The Earth Trembles An earthquake occurs when plates grind or slip at a fault line A seismograph detects earthquakes and measures the waves they create Earthquake Locations Location in the earth where an earthquake begins is called the focus Epicenter—the point directly above focus on the earth’s surface Nearly 95% of earthquakes occur at tectonic plate boundaries
Natural Disasters The Explosive Earth Volcano—underground materials pour from crack in the earth’s surface Most volcanoes occur at tectonic plate boundaries Volcanic Action Eruption—lava, gases, ash, dust, explode from vent in Earth’s crust Lava—magma that has reached the earth’s surface; may create landform
Natural Disasters Hurricanes Huge storms called hurricanes, or typhoons in Asia: -form over warm, tropical ocean waters -hit land with heavy rain, high winds, storm surge Tornadoes Tornado—a powerful, funnel-shaped column of spiraling air: -born from strong thunderstorms -capable of immense damage
Natural Disasters Blizzards Blizzard—heavy snowstorm with strong winds, reduced visibility Droughts Drought: long period of time with either no or minimal rainfall Floods Water spreads out over normally dry land
How do we “map” the Earth?? Two or Three Dimensions Globe—a three-dimensional representation (a sphere) of Earth Map—a two-dimensional graphic representation of Earth’s surface Cartographer (mapmaker) tries to accurately reflect earth’s surface Map projection—way of showing Earth’s curved surface on a flat map Surveying –Surveyors observe, measure, record what they see in a specific area –Remote sensing, gathering geographic data from a distance, includes: –aerial photography –satellite imaging –Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a digital geographic database
How does Weather occur?? Ocean Motion The ocean circulates through currents, waves, tides Currents act like rivers flowing through the ocean Waves are swells or ridges produced by winds Tides are the regular rising and falling of the ocean –created by gravitational pull of the moon or sun Motion of ocean helps distribute heat on the planet –winds are heated and cooled by ocean water Water, it’s EVERYWHERE! Lakes hold more than 95% of the earth’s fresh water Ground water—water held in the pores of rock Water table—level at which the rock is saturated
Onto the Dry Part of the Planet… Landforms Landforms are naturally formed features on Earth’s surface Tectonic plates are massive, moving pieces of Earth’s lithosphere Plate Movement Plates move in a few ways: by spreading, or moving apart –subduction, or diving under another plate –collision, or crashing together –sliding past each other in a shearing motion
How Does Earth Change?? Altering the Landscape Weathering—processes that alter rock on or near the earth’s surface Mechanical weathering—processes that break rock into smaller pieces –Does not change rock’s composition, only size –Examples: frost, plant roots, road construction, mining Chemical weathering—interaction of elements creates new substance –Example: when iron rusts it reacts to oxygen in air and crumbles Erosion—when weathered material moves by winds, water, ice, gravity