Cold War: An era of competition and confrontation between The U.S. and the Soviet Union. 1946-1990 Essentially for U.S. It was about containing communism.
Yalta Conference After 1945 the Soviet Union and the U.S. try to rebuild Europe peacefully. The disagreement was over how to run the elections of the post war Poland and the Balkans The U.S. wanted free elections, The soviet Union wanted to institute a soviet sphere of influence.
Potsdam Conference. 1946 Germany collapsed and Truman replaced FDR America wanted to industrialize Germany Russia wanted to make it agricultural based. Truman hinted at working Atomic bombe to force Russia to agree with industrialization of Germany after the war.
The Iron Curtain descends Stalin sensing what he felt to be a betrayal began to set-up a set of Soviet satellite states from the Adriatic to the Baltic sea. Germany which had been split into territories became the lynch pin France Britain and America began to unify their territories and spread free elections The Soviet pushed communism in the eastern block
Berlin Airlift To deal with the Soviet Union the U.S. merged their territories with their allies. The Soviet Union decided to cut ties with Western Germany, almost preparing for an invasion. The U.S. sent planes full of supplies to Western Germany to support them.
George Kennan and the Long Telegram George Kennan was an ambassador to Moscow as tension began to sour. The long telegram refers to 5,540 word telegram that explained his view on the Soviet Union Kennan developed the idea of Containment which meant the U.S. needed to keep communism contained to the Soviet Union
Domino Theory The idea of containment was based around the Domino theory. Domino Theory: the idea that if communism could spread to the surrounding countries of USSR then it would eventually spread around the world. Essentially countries would fall to communism like dominos.
Truman Doctrine The first test of containment came with a request from Britain who had been supporting the Greek government in a civil war. He asked Congress for 400 million to try and free the area from the Soviet Union. This action would lead the Truman Doctrine, were the U.S. would provide aid to any country facing oppression or opposing communism. QUIET DISKEY
Protecting the World The U.S. would continue to implement policies in an attempt to protect against communism. Marshall plan: Developed by secretary of state George C. Marshall the plan donated money to rebuild war torn Europe and Japan. Originally was a gamble because the U.S. included Russia in those who would give aid.
NATO As the Soviet Union blockaded off Berlin from the countries were looking for some security from the U.S. NATO: stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Twelve countries who agreed to militarily support any country attacked. 1 st it committed the U.S. to the defense of Europe 2 nd The U.S. would honor this agreement, Dwight D. Eisenhower was put in charge.
The Chinese Revolution China formed a prominent communist party before world war II. Which was less active in order to stop the Japanese. When WWII ended the party restarted and began to gain strength. America provided the Chinese 2 billion dollars in aid to put down the Communists. Unfortunately the funds were misspent and China fell to Mao and communism.
The Korean War North Korea crosses over what is known as the 38 th parallel. Brings the U.S. forces lead by Douglas MacArthur into action. U.S. and U.N. forces pushes the North Koreans to the border of China. China feeling threatened attacks and pushes U.S. forces back to South Korea.
The Red Scare As the U.S. continues to try and stop the spread of Communism a spy defects on the Canadian border. Lead to the second Red Scare. The Search for spies increased greatly as the country began to fear a Communist subversion to weaken the U.S.
Un-American Activities The director of the FBI J Edgar Hoover was not pleased with the simple screening of employees. Hoover expanded the HUAC calling public hearings related to possible communists. The committee focused on the film industry many member of Hollywood testified against their friends and neighbors.
The Rosenberg's Believed to be Communist spies the Rosenberg's sold government secrets to the Soviets. After hearing testimony by scientist that had sold secrets the Rosenberg's were arrested. Both of the Rosenbergs were condemned to death.
McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy was a senator that looking to fast track his career by taking advantage of the red scare. McCarthy became the head of the sub committee and built hearings based on flimsy evidence. This would damage the careers of possible opponents. The tactic was known as McCathyism
McCarran Act Known as the internal security act Made it illegal to conspire against the U.S. government. Required all communist parties to publish the names of their members. Any communist sympathizers could be arrested. It was named after Senator Pat McCarren
McCarthy goes too far Joseph McCarthy continued to accuse citizens of being communist to rise in power. McCarthy became less trusted though as he accused a close friend of President Eisenhower of being a communist. The president and congress ordered an investigation of McCarthy ending his reign of terror.
Eisenhower comes to power As Eisenhower entered the White House the Cold War was one of his Primary interests. He believed that the war would not be won not just by military build up, but also economic build up.
Massive Retaliation Eisenhower thought communism could not be contained with small battles. Instead he believed in threatening to use Nuclear Weapons. This was known as Massive retalation. There critics to this idea calling it brinksmanship due to putting the world on the brink of war.
The end of a war and control of a crisis By 1953 Eisenhower had decided to end the war in Korea, and signed a peace accord. As China fell to the Communist the new soviet country began talks to invade Taiwan. Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons ending the crisis.
Mutually Assured Destruction Eisenhower could no longer use Massive retaliation as the soviets developed a Nuclear Bomb. This lead to the U.S. being tied. Both of them new that use of nuclear of force against each other allies could lead to nuclear war. Nuclear war could end the war as well as the destruction of both countries.
Sputnik As Eisenhower had work on project overseas the Russians Launched the first satellite into space. The satellite was named Sputnik it terrified the American public. Part of it was a fear that the soviets were watching us. They believed that for the first time America had fallen behind in the cold war.
Peace time blitz Post world war 2 even though the U.S. was fighting communism it is a great time of prosperity in the U.S. During this time the U.S. built the federal high ways TVs provided entertainment most families Rock and Roll began to surface. The Government also created the GI Bill which gave soldiers who served in time in military service free college education. The most successful bill of the twentieth century.
military industrial complex As Eisenhower left the presidency he warned the American public that if citizens were not careful the country would always in be a state of war. This was due to the idea the weapons producers could always make a profit by keeping country moving from conflict to conflict. This was known as the military industrial complex.
The Election of 1960 The presidency changes drastically as the sixties began due to the innovation of television. It was estimated that 75 million watched the first ever televised debate. Both parties had spent 6 million dollars in radio and television adds.
Upon entering the White House Kennedy proposed what would be known as the New Frontier He hoped to increase aid to education Provide health insurance Develop a department of Urban Affairs Win the space race
Successes Kennedy was able to strengthen the economy through deficit spending. Kennedy also focused on the rights of women with a Presidential commission. Eventually it would lead to the equal pay act.
JFK and Communism Kennedy worked to make the military more flexible. He made it easier for Latin America to receive aid and developed the peace corps. Kennedy felt the Eisenhower relied too much on Nuclear weapons. Kennedy instead increased funding to the special forces. The President pushed for a build up in troops and conventional weapons.
Bringing assistance In fighting Communism Kennedy focused on aid as much as military. 20 billion dollars was spent in an alliance with Latin America. The money went to developing schools, housing and health care.
Peace Corps Along with financial aid the President also developed programs to assist less fortunate countries. The most memorable being the Peace Corps. An organization that sent Americans to provide humanitarian services in less developed nations.
Space Race 1961 the Russian Cosmanaught Yuri Gagarin is the first person to orbit the earth. Kennedy mad it a goal of the country to land a man on the Moon by the end of the decade. July 16 1969 the Saturn V rocket launches and will land on the moon.
Bay of Pigs 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista He quickly established ties wit the Soviet Union and Nikita Khrushchev the Prime Minister, this was viewed as too close to home for many Americans As well creating drastic land reform and seizing U.S. businesses.
Bay Continued Eisenhower authorized the CIA to train La Brigada to invade the Island. As Kennedy came into to power he authorized this movement. The group landed off a same island off the coast of Cuba called the bay of pigs. Kennedy cut air support to operation leading to it’s failure and Castro uncovering the plot
The Berlin Wall Nikita Kruschev wanted to stop the Flood of Germans leaving East Germany. He demanded that the allied group of France Britain and the U.S. remove themselves. Kennedy decided to remain firm and try to help the East Germans Kruschev built a wall separating the two territories that would stand for the next 30 years.
Cuban Missile Crisis The U.S. continued to take aerial surveillance of Cuba after the Bay of pigs failure. Eventually Kennedy announced to the world that the Soviet Union was placing nuclear weapons in Cuba. Kennedy pushed for a naval blockade to stop any other nuclear materials from entering CUba
Running the Blockade If the soviet Union would have broken the Naval blockade created by the U.S. it could have possibly started a Nuclear war. Eventually both sides agreed to remove missiles from Cuba and Turkey in a secret meeting.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty After the close destruction during the Cuban missile crisis both sides decide to start consider the Nuclear crisis. The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. sign the nuclear test ban treaty: Which stopped the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
The Kennedy Era Ends Shortly after the passage of the test ban treaty Kennedy and his wife were visiting Dallas Texas. As the motorcade was moved down the street President Kennedy was shot once in the throat and head The believed gunman was Lee Harvey Oswald Oswald would later be killed in police custody
Plessy V. Ferguson This is the court case that created segregation in the first place. Daniel Plessy a light skinned African American sat in a white only section of a train. He was asked to move to the black only. He refused and kicked off the train. The question was could that train company separate black and white passengers. The supreme court stated that areas could be segregated if they were “Separate but Equal”
Jim Crow Laws Existed after Plessey ruling a series of laws know of Jim Crow Laws were put in place to continue segregation. Laws like literacy test for African American’s to vote. Theses were also known as de facto segregation. Went from late 1867 to 1964.
African Americans that spoke out Booker T. Washington: Created the Tuskegee institute to teach African Americans about simple life skills. Created the African American Scientist George Washington Carver. Web Dubious: Author and creator of the Niagara movement pushed for African Americans to protest for their rights.
Ida B. Wells Wrote articles to enlighten the country about lynching laws in the south to try and end them. Lynching was citizens in the south would impromptu hang African Americans for social wrongs.
NAACP NAACP= National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Created in part by W.E.B. Dubious the NAACP protest for African American rights, and fought court battles to end segregation.
The Civil Rights Movement The true start is December 1955 in Montgomery Alabama. It was based around Rosa parks News of parks arrest reached E.D. Nixon who was then head of the NAACP The National Association Advancement Colored People.
NAACP The NAACP was constantly fighting to end segregation. Their goal was to find a supreme court case that would make Segregation unconstitutional. They thought parks case could end segregation which was based around the idea od separate but equal. The Democratic party also grew during the 1930’s relying on support from African Americans.
Standing up by sitting down James Farmer and George Houser founded the Congress of Racial Equality. Or CORE They attempted to desegregate places, such as: department stores, and Restaurants. They practiced Sit-ins to protest, they would sit down in public places until they were given service in the “Whites only Section”
Brown V.S. the Board of Education The Case takes place in Topeka Kansas It is based around a girl named Linda Brown Brown was denied access to the local Public school due to being African American
The Courts Ruling The NAACP pooled their money to Hire Thurgood Marshall for their legal defense of the case. The Court Ruled that segregation was illegal because most establishments did not achieve the standard of separate but equal. Essentially segregation would continue to deprive African Americans of status.
Montgomery Bus Boycott As the Brown ruling came to pass a number of African American leaders in Alabama organized a boycott of the bus system. The group would continue to boycott the bus system until it was desegregated. The group elected Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to lead the boycott. The Boycott continued until the supreme court ruled segregation in Alabama to be illegal.
The little rock seven As America desegregated it’s school the governor of Arkansas sent the national guard to prevent African American students from entering the school. Eventually President Eisenhower had to send in the U.S. military to make sure that the students would be allowed to enter.
SNNC As the 1960’s rolled around students became more active in the fight for civil rights. The student Non violent Coordinating Committee was formed. The group was made up of mostly black and white college students. They sent students to register African Americans to vote.
Civil Rights movement Kennedy was able to appoint a number of African American's in high government positions. (Example Thurgood Marshall being appointed to the circuit court) Vice President Johnson was placed in charge of a bureau for the equal employment of African Americans.
Freedom Ride While had a laid back approach to achieving civil rights the movement itself would not accept his actions. The congress of racial equality sponsored a freedom ride. They attempted to test a supreme court ruling outlawing segregation in all bus and train stations. When arriving in Alabama the riders were attacked by a mob of angry whites. Kennedy sent a letter asking them to stop since he was busy with the Berlin crisis. Eventually the interstate commerce committee banned segregation.
March on Washington As Kennedy began to propose a major civil rights bill to congress, MLK knew it would be difficult for the President to pass the bill. MLK marched with 200,000 African americns on the capital. Over the next few days the crowds listened to speeches and sang. It built momentum for the bill but some congressmen still opposed the bill.
Filibuster of the bill As the senate debated the civil rights bill those opposed to filibustered. Filibuster: when a small group of senators take turns speaking and refuse to stop the debate. After Kennedy died Johnson lead a movemnt to pass the bill.
Civil Rights 1964 The most comprehensive civil rights bill ever enacted. It gave the Federal Government broad power to prevent racial discrimination. Made segregation illegal in most public places. Allowed the government to desgregate by using law suits.
War on Poverty Kennedy had made plans to help the impoverished along with a civil rights bill. Johnson continued the plans Johnson had seen poverty first hand being a teacher in a poor area.
War on Poverty By late 1964 Johnson passed the Economic opportunity act. This bill went after what was believed to be the cause of poverty. Inadequate public services, illiteracy, and unemployment. Would lead to the establishment of VISTA: Put people with skills to work in impoverished areas.
quiz Fascism Black shirts Internationalism America first committee Pearl Harbor Atlantic charter Hemispheric defense zone