MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT By : Sahadadi Mulyana Jakarta, March 2006
Theory of Learning and teaching ( Tomlinson & Masuhara, 2004 ) Learner Teacher Material
Learners - succed : positive, relaxed, enjoyable experience Teachers - teach successfully: can gain enjoyment themselves from the materials they are using Materials - connect the learning experiences in the classroom to their own lives outside it - engage the emotions of the learner.
Definition of teaching material They are the information, equipment and text for instructors that are required for planning and review upon training implementation. Text and training equipment are included in teaching material. (Anonym dalam Website)
Bahan ajar adalah segala bentuk bahan yang digunakan untuk membantu guru/instruktur dalam melaksanakan kegiatan belajar mengajar di kelas. Bahan yang dimaksud bisa berupa bahan tertulis maupun bahan tidak tertulis. (National Center for Vocational Education Research Ltd/National Center for Competency Based Training)
Bahan ajar merupakan informasi, alat dan teks yang diperlukan guru/instruktur untuk perencanaan dan penelaahan implementasi pembelajaran. Bahan ajar adalah seperangkat materi yang disusun secara sistematis baik terulis maupun tidak sehingga tercipta lingkungan/suasana yang memungkinkan siswa untuk belajar. (Bahan diklat untuk materi” Bahan Ajar SMA”)
Bentuk Bahan Ajar Bahan Cetak (hand out, buku, modul, LKS, brosur, leaflet, wallchart,…) Audio Visual (video/film, VCD, …) Audio ( radio, kaset, CD/DVD, PH, …) Visual ( foto, gambar, model/maket, ….) Multi media ( CD interaktif, Computer based)
Role and Design of Materials Roles for materials Presentation of language models, as in PPP (presentation, practice, production) A source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction Reference source, e.g., for grammar rules, vocabularies, pronunciation A syllabus – what to teach and when Support for less experienced Ts
Kinds of materials Authentic materials Created/artificial materials
Authentic Materials “texts, photographs, … that were not specifically designed for pedagogical purposes. authentic language reflect real-world
Created Materials specifically developed for teaching purposes
Authentic (+) provide realistic practice for Ss - closely to the learner’s need offer models of real language link classroom to the outside world - authentic cultural information about the target culture
Authentic (-) too difficult, little comprehensible input (may be beyond the learner’s ability) Ss may feel frustrated, lose confidence
Created Materials (+) More comprehensible Tailored to specific level of Ss Tailored to specific pedagogic purposes, e.g., to highlight past perfect tense
Created Materials (-) the language used may be artificial comprehension may actually fall, as clues are removed in simplification Ss feel unrealistically confident
Textbooks (+ & -) + Provide structure and a syllabus for a programm + Standardize teaching + Save Ts time + Provide good language models + Visually appealing + Support new Ts - Cost more - inauthentic language - not Ss needs, designed for a broad audience, not specific Ss - Deskill Ts reflect - less flexible
Stages of Material design Materials Evaluation Materials Adaption Materials Writing
Textbook Evaluation Does it fits Ts’ needs, teaching approach? Does it fit school’s objectives? exams? What other materials accompany the textbook, e.g., Ts’ book, CD, test item bank? Does this fit school? Cost? Durability? Visual appeal? Are topics of interest?
What is materials evaluation? Involves measuring the value or potential value of a set of learning materials Makes judgments about the effect of the materials on the people using the appeal of the materials to the learners (Are the materials attractive? the validity of materials the ability of the materials to interest the learners and the teachers the ability of the materials to motivate the learners
Types of Evaluation Pre-Use Evaluation: making predictions about the potential value of materials for their users. Whilst-Use Evaluation:measuring the value of materials whilst using them or whilst observing them being used. Post-Use Evaluation: measuring the factual effects of the materials on the users.
Conducting Materials Evaluation Select one of the books you decided could be used as a textbook Do a pre-use evaluation as group work. Report the results
Adapting Textbooks Compromise between sole reliance on textbooks and developing your own Add or delete content Change order or omit a lesson/unit Modify tasks, e.g., add a pre-task, provide extra explanation Ts can collaborate on bank of supplementary materials
What is materials adaptation? Materials adaptation involves changing existing materials so that they become more suitable for specific learners, teachers or situation.
Reasons for Adapting Materials Mismatch between materials and teaching environment Mismatch between learning style implied by materials and learning style of most learners in the class Mismatch between instructions in materials and teacher’s own personality, beliefs, teaching style Mismatch between course objectives and focus of book
Practice Look again at some of the materials that had some good parts or features. How could you adapt them for a particular class? (Work in groups.) Report to class on what you discussed.
Creating Your Own Materials Can just be one lesson Materials more relevant to Ss Develops Ts’ skill and understanding Promotes greater thought about the learning process Boosts Ts’ reputation and self-esteem
Materials Writing What reasons might you have for writing materials? Activity: Make a list of reasons, scenarios that would prompt you to consider writing materials
To write or not to write What are some reasons for producing your own materials? What are some reasons for not doing it?
Preparing for materials development Text-based framework recommended, so first step is text collection Collect or create written or spoken texts with a variety of purposes Principles for text selection: Texts should engage students cognitively and effectively
Text types: Classification by purpose Narratives – tell a story, Recounts – tell what happened Factual recounts Personal recounts Instructions – tell how to do something Explanations – tell how or why something works the way it does Information reports – organise and classify information; present it so that it is easy to understand Expositions – state an opinion and try to convince the audience to agree
Structure & Language Features of Each Text Type Narratives Structure: Setting & characters, complication, climax, resolution Language features: past tense, adverbials of time, place and manner, direct speech Recounts (factual) Structure: usually follows chronological order, except for newspaper articles, which give main event first and then add details Language features: past tense, adverbials of time and place, may use passive, indirect speech common, third person pronouns. Recounts (personal) Structure: orientation, details (usually in chronological order, re-orientation and personal comment Language features: past tense, adverbials of time, place and manner, indirect speech likely, 1 st (and some 3 rd) person pronouns
Structure & Language Features of Each Text Type (cont.) Instructions Structure: Materials or ingredients; procedure in sequenced steps Language features: minor sentences in materials or ingredients section, imperatives in procedure section, quantifiers, adverbs of sequence Explanations Structure: Procedure described in sequenced steps Language features: passive voice often used, adverbs of sequence, may contain verbs and conjunctions indicating cause & effect Information reports Structure: Often contains charts, lists, diagrams. May have few major sentences. Language features: many relational verbs (be, become, include). Major sentences tend to be in the present tense (unless the information is historical)
Structure & Language Features of Each Text Type (cont.) Exposition Structure: Two common structures are found: State position, give evidence, conclude by restating position State counterclaim, give reasons why it is not valid, state speaker/writer’s own position. Language features: modals, cause-effect conjunctions, conditionals, many first and second person pronouns, rhetorical questions.
Practice Select from materials provided Create 2 or 3 activities using the text that could be used in one lesson Be sure that your objectives are clear
Managing a materials writing project Summarize what you have read. Discuss factors you would need to consider in your location if you decided to initiate a materials writing project
CALL & Multimedia Materials Advantages and disadvantages Selection Look at samples What are the good and bad features of each?
Do it yourself? Making your own ?...Watch demo..\Specialist course in IT\History\English.exedemo..\Specialist course in IT\History\English.exe Web-based materials A wonderful source of authentic texts – spoken and written Notes on making recordings
Review We’ve talked about: Selecting materials Reasons for adapting materials Principles in adapting materials Reasons for creating materials Principles in creating materials Using multimedia materials Using web-based materials
Materials Development Process Project specifications, Particularly starting points, components, distinguishing features, balance of skills, syllabus type, length of units, time per lesson Springboard, 1998, Oxford University Press
Cakupan bahan ajar Judul, Mata Pelajaran/mata Diklat, Standar Kompetensi, indikator Petunjuk belajar Kompetensi yang akan dicapai Informasi pendukung Latihan-latihan Petunjuk kerja Penilaian
Contoh penyusunan peta bahan ajar menurut kurikulum 2004 Standar Kompetensi KD judul
Contoh alur analisis penyusunan bahan ajar menurut kurikulum 2004 SK KD Indikator Bahan ajar Pengalaman belajar Materi pokok
LKS Definisi Lembar kegiatan siswa (student worksheet) adalah lembaran-lembaran yang berisi tugas untuk dikerjakan siswa LKS berisi petunjuk, langkah-langkah untuk menyelesaikan sebuah tugas. LKS sebaiknya bukan semata-mata sebuah latihan tetapi harus bisa membimbing siswa melakukan kreasi dan refleksi
Contoh langkah-langkah penyusunan LKS menurut kurikulum 2004 Melakukan analisa kurikulum, SK, KD, Indikator, dan Materi Pokok Menyusun peta Kebutuhan LKS Menentukan judul LKS Menulis LKS Menentukan alat Penilaian
Struktur LKS secara umum menurut kurikulum 2004 Judul, Mata Pelajaran, Semester, Petunjuk belajar Kompetensi yang akan dicapai Indikator Informasi pendukung Tugas-tugas dan langkah kerja Penilaian