Presentation on theme: "Terms and concepts. Approach and method the nature of language What is language? Is it a system of structurally related elements for coding meaning? Is."— Presentation transcript:
Terms and concepts
Approach and method the nature of language What is language? Is it a system of structurally related elements for coding meaning? Is it a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning? Is it a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and the performance of social transactions between individuals? Linguistics the nature of language learning How are languages learnt? What are the psycholinguistic & cognitive processes involved in language learning? What are the conditions that have to be met in order to activate these learning processes? Psycholinguistics Approach: theoretical positions about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings
Method Method: an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, which is based on the selected approach. A method has: Objectives: Product-oriented objectives: Development of oral skills Accurate grammar Process-oriented objectives: Learning as a means of becoming a more proficient learner Most methods are product-oriented Content choice & organization: syllabus Selection of language items Organization/Grading of selected items. Grammar-based courses: difficulty/frequency of items Communicative courses: learners' communicative needs
Types of teaching & learning activities/tasks Drills/pattern practice, Roleplays, different arrangements/grouping of students Roles of teachers, learners & teaching materials Teacher-centred : Teachers' functions (director, counselor, model, monitor...) and control on learning Interactional patterns between teachers and learners Learner-centred: planning monitoring & evaluating learning is the learners' responsibility Task-based : Students' self-instruction Techniques/procedures Classroom activities: presentation, oral practice, T-S questions, explanations,...
Theoretical Principles Methods Texbooks
Textbook analysis 1. Textbook: (title) 1.1. Author/s: 1.2. Year of publication: 1.3. Publisher: 1.4. Level (elementary/preintermediate/intermediate/advanced): 1.5. Teaching units: 1.6. Pages/unit: 1.7. Complementary materials (tapes, teacher's book, workbooks, wallcharts, etc.): 2. Description of content: 2.1. Is it intended to teach grammar rules? teach functional exponents? develop especific skills? 3. Organization of content: 3.1. What is the criteria used for the sequencing of content? a. Grammatical complexity. b. Use frequency. c. Communicative usefulness. d. Others.
4. Main sections included in each unit/lesson. List them. 5. Activities included in the textbook. List them Are the same sort of activities included in all lessons? 5.2. If not, which are most used? 5.3. Do they develop communicative competence? 5.4. Do they reproduce realistic situations? 5.5. Do you consider them useful to train the students for real communication? 6. Texts used to introduce new items: 6.1. Are they related to the students' interests? 6.2. Are they authentic? 6.3. Are they amusing or motivating? 6.4. Do they give information about sociocultural aspects of the country and speakers of the target language? 6.5. Do they contain sexist or racist implications? 7. Illustrations. 8. Which is the theory of language implicit? 9. Which is the theory of learning implicit? 10. Give your personal evaluation of the textbook and add any comments you think relevant.
Sample unit analysis 1. Textbook Title: 1.2. Author/s: 1.3. Year of publication: 1.4. Level: 2. Unit content aims: Is it mainly intended to teach grammar rules? teach functional exponents? develop especific skills? ? 3. Sections included. List them. 4. Text used to introduce new items: 4.1. Is it related to the students' interests? 4.2. Is it authentic? 4.3. Is it amusing or motivating? 4.4. Does it give information about sociocultural aspects of the country and speakers of the target language? 4.5. Does it contain moral, sexist or racist implications?
5. Activities included in the unit. List them Do they develop communicative competence? 5.2. Do they reproduce realistic situations? 5.3. Do you consider them useful to train the students for real communication? 6. Which is the theory of language implicit? 7. Which is the theory of learning implicit? 8. Give your personal evaluation of the unit and add any comments you think relevant.