2 Approach and methodApproach: theoretical positions about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settingsthe nature of language♦ What is language?♦ Is it a system of structurally related elements for coding meaning?♦ Is it a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning?♦ Is it a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and the performance of social transactions between individuals?Linguistics♦ the nature of language learning♦ How are languages learnt?♦ What are the psycholinguistic & cognitive processes involved in language learning?♦ What are the conditions that have to be met in order to activate these learning processes?Psycholinguistics
3 MethodMethod: an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, which is based on the selected approach.A method has:♦ Objectives:Product-oriented objectives:Development of oral skillsAccurate grammar• Process-oriented objectives:Learning as a means of becoming a more proficient learnerMost methods are product-orientedContent choice & organization: syllabus• Selection of language items• Organization/Grading of selected items.Grammar-based courses: difficulty/frequency of itemsCommunicative courses: learners' communicative needs
4 Techniques/procedures Types of teaching & learning activities/tasksDrills/pattern practice, Roleplays, different arrangements/grouping of studentsRoles of teachers, learners & teaching materials• Teacher-centred:Teachers' functions (director, counselor, model, monitor...) and control on learningInteractional patterns between teachers and learners• Learner-centred:planningmonitoring & evaluatinglearning is the learners' responsibility• Task-based:Students' self-instructionTechniques/proceduresClassroom activities: presentation, oral practice, T-S questions, explanations,...
6 Textbook analysis 1. Textbook: (title) 1.1. Author/s: 1.2. Year of publication:1.3. Publisher:1.4. Level (elementary/preintermediate/intermediate/advanced):1.5. Teaching units:1.6. Pages/unit:1.7. Complementary materials (tapes, teacher's book, workbooks, wallcharts, etc.):2. Description of content:2.1. Is it intended toteach grammar rules?teach functional exponents?develop especific skills?3. Organization of content:3.1. What is the criteria used for the sequencing of content?a. Grammatical complexity.b. Use frequency.c. Communicative usefulness.d. Others.
7 4. Main sections included in each unit/lesson. List them. 5. Activities included in the textbook. List them.5.1. Are the same sort of activities included in all lessons?5.2. If not, which are most used?5.3. Do they develop communicative competence?5.4. Do they reproduce realistic situations?5.5. Do you consider them useful to train the students for real communication?6. Texts used to introduce new items:6.1. Are they related to the students' interests?6.2. Are they authentic?6.3. Are they amusing or motivating?6.4. Do they give information about sociocultural aspects of the country and speakers of the target language?6.5. Do they contain sexist or racist implications?7. Illustrations.8. Which is the theory of language implicit?9. Which is the theory of learning implicit?10. Give your personal evaluation of the textbook and add any comments you think relevant.
8 Sample unit analysis 1. Textbook. 1.1. Title: 1.2. Author/s: 1.3. Year of publication:1.4. Level:2. Unit content aims:Is it mainly intended toteach grammar rules?teach functional exponents?develop especific skills??3. Sections included. List them.4. Text used to introduce new items:4.1. Is it related to the students' interests?4.2. Is it authentic?4.3. Is it amusing or motivating?4.4. Does it give information about sociocultural aspects of the country and speakers of the target language?4.5. Does it contain moral, sexist or racist implications?
9 5. Activities included in the unit. List them. 5.1. Do they develop communicative competence?5.2. Do they reproduce realistic situations?5.3. Do you consider them useful to train the students for real communication?6. Which is the theory of language implicit?7. Which is the theory of learning implicit?8. Give your personal evaluation of the unit and add any comments you think relevant.