2What’s (Not) In Your Mind? All things come at first from MINDMind creates them, mind fulfills themSpeak or act with tainted mind,You’ll drag around a cart of painSpeak or act with lucid mindAnd joy will follow like your shadow.The Dhammapada
3The whole aim of Eastern religion is to shift self-identity from the light bulb to the light – Joseph CampbellEnlightenment
4Big Questions How can we be happy? What prevents it? To Hell in a Hand Basket or Heaven on Earth?Buddhism – A Raft out of Hell?Did you know you’re my Hero’s Journey?What’s funny bout peace, love and understanding?Dr. Buddha: Dukkhalogist - 8-fold PathWhat’s (not) in your Mind?The Jewel’s in the What?WWBK – What would Buddha know?
5Same Goal?“The only thing that is unqualifiedly good is extended vision, the enlargement of one’s understanding of the ultimate nature of things” (8).What is the nature of things?What is the state of the world?Story – “Birdsnest”
6“Fire and Ice” Robert Frost Some say the world will end in fire.Some say in ice.From what I’ve tasted of desire,I hold with those who favor fire.But if it had to perish twice,I think I know enough of hateTo say that for destruction iceIs also great,And would suffice.“Fire and Ice” Robert Frost
7Fear and Desire – The Only Way? “The Last Flower”Gandhi – “I know a way out of hell”Story – “Heaven and Hell”Buddha – “I teach suffering and the end of suffering”
8The Three Poisons Aversion/Hatred/Fear Delusion/Ignorance Grasping/DesireAversion/Hatred/FearDelusion/IgnoranceCause all sufferingReflect Personality types
9Buddhist View of LifeA. 6 senses - Sights, Sounds, Tastes, Smells, Physical perceptions, Mental perceptionsB. 6 accompanying consciousnesses –Sight and the seeing of it, etc.C. 52 feeling/thought reactions/responses (26 wise, 26 unwise) interplaying between sense experiences and consciousness
10Wise and Unwise Responses to Life Unwise/UnskillfulHatredJealousyFearAngeretc.Wise/SkillfulLoveCompassionGenerosityOpennessTranquilityEquanimity, etc.
11Two Ways of LivingUnwise/Unskillful – Wandering about at the whim of every desire, impulse, emotion, like a stick in a river, moody etc.2. Wise/Skillful/Enlightened – intentional, deliberate, skillful, wise, etc.Quick Write - Name a person from your life, from a story, or from history or news that you would describe as “enlightened” or “wise” and give specificsRepeat for someone “unenlightened” or “unwise”
12Gandhi’s morning prayer Let our first act in the morning be to resolve such as this:I shall not fear anyone on earthI shall fear only that which is sacredI will not bear ill will towards anyoneI shall not submit to injusticeI shall conquer untruth by truthI shall conquer hatred by loveAnd in resting in truth I shall bear all sufferingAnd bring freedom of spirit to my own heart and all those that I touch
13Others Love your enemies – Jesus Meet physical force with soul force – MLKMake me an instrument of your peace – St. Francis of AssisiBuddhist Quotes – page 3 in packetOkay, but how?
14“Buddhism is a voyage across life’s river –a transport from the common sense shore of ignorance, grasping and death to the further bank of wisdom and enlightenment” (144).
15Wisdom? “What is the wisdom we’ve lost in knowledge?” Socrates = poster boy for Western Wisdom – what did he know?“All I know is that I do not know”Oracle at Delphi – Know ThyselfWhat did Buddha discover?
16Goal – Mindfulness/Awareness/ Enlightenment “The more deeply we pay attention the more deeply we experience that we do not exist separate from the sunlight or the clouds or the earthworms…To the extent that we have learned to grasp and identify with this limited life, we suffer. The amount of our identification with it is our delusion, our suffering.” Jack Kornfield
17Big IdeasIt’s all in the MIND Consciousness/ Awareness/Mindfulness/EnlightenmentLife is suffering caused by 1) Selfish Desire/ Grasping, 2) Fear/ Aversion, and 3) Ignorance/ DelusionEmpty Self thru 8fold Path, Middle WayThe Jewel is in the LotusBuddha nature and the Nirvanic World
18BUDDHA "What are you"? "I am Awake” "Buddha" = the Awakened, the EnlightenedSiddhartha GautamaB.C.E.Nepal/IndiaSakyamuni (silent sage)“Wisdom Incarnate”
19The Man Who Woke UpA man “judged by hundreds of millions of people, from Ceylon [Sri Lanka] to Japan, and throughout large sections of the Asian mainland, to have exerted by his intellectual integrity, moral persuasiveness and spiritual insight, the most pervasive influence on the thought and life of the human race.” – Del Byron Schneider"The rest of us dream the dream known as the awakened state of human life"
20Classic Hero’s Journey I. Prince, 4 Passing Sights, Great Going Forth – Quest, find the cause of sufferingII. Finds Middle Way, TemptationsEnlightenment under Bodhi Tree – finds cause and end of sufferingIII. Returns with a mission to preach a religion of wisdom and compassion
21Four Passing Sights Journal –Mindblower old man - aging sick people - diseasecorpse - deathmonk - withdrawal"Life is subject to age and death - where is the realm of life in which there is neither?"Fleshly pleasures lose their charm, so at 29 goes into forest
22The Great Going Forth Learns Raja Yoga w Hindu Gurus Tries austerity of ascetics - didn't work to bring enlightenment, but did lead him to principle ofThe Middle Way – like a string on an instrument
23EnlightenmentSits under peepul/Bo tree (bodhi=knowledge) Gaya in NE IndiaVows - “Let my skin and sinews and bones become dry…. all the flesh and blood in my body dry up, but never from this seat will I stir, until I have attained the supreme and absolute wisdom.”
24Temptation (like Christ’s on the eve of his ministry) 1. Kama - desire - babes2. Mara - death - empties finite selfMara challenges his right to be there - Buddha touches the earth to bear witnessLost in rapture for 7 days, tries to get up, overcome by waves of bliss, stays 7x7 days3. Mara appeals to reason, don't go back - "How show what can only be found, teach what can only be learned?” Buddha replies – “Some will understand.”
25Mission Lives message Preaches 50 years - withdraws 6 yrs, preaches 45.3 mos, preaches 9.3x/dayDies c.483 B.C. at 80Last words - "Work out your own salvation with diligence."
26The Silent Sage Sakyamuni - silent sage of the Sakya Clan “One of the greatest personalities of all time” – Smith“Wisdom incarnate” - cool head/ rational (like Socrates) and warm heart of “infinite compassion”(like Francis)transforming presence - moved among kings and villagers with equal ease, took no notice of caste
27The Rebel SaintUnlike Hinduism, Buddhism sprang fully formed as an Indian Protestantism against Hindu perversions6 Common Elements of Religion that were corrupted1. Authority2. Ritual – (“People danced out their religion before they thought it out”)3. Speculation – metaphysics4. Tradition5. Grace6. MysteryWhat started was a religion almost entirely devoid of each of these ingredients without which we would suppose that religion could not take root.
28Original Buddhism Empirical - know for yourself, validate Scientific - cause and effect experimentsPractical - not speculativeTherapeutic - suffering and its endPsychological – v. metaphysical - began with human problems instead of universeEgalitarian - women equal, caste breakingIndividuals - Be lamps unto yourselves, work out your own salvation with diligence
29Numerical too and Useful 2 Ways of Living3 Poisons3 Marks of Existence3 Jewels4 Noble Truths4 Foundations of Mindfulness5 Precepts5 Skandhas5 Hindrances6 Senses6 Accompanying Consciousnesses6 Moments of Dukkha7 Factors of Enlightenment8 Fold Path52 Skillful and Unskillful Responses To Life"Suffering have I explained - for this is useful“its cause, destruction and path that leads to its destruction.
30Kalama Sutta"Do not accept what you hear by report, do not accept tradition, do not accept a statement because it is found in our books, nor because it is in accord with your beliefs, not because it is the saying of your teacher. Be lamps unto yourselves. Those who either now or after I am dead, still rely upon themselves only and not look for assistance to anyone besides themselves, it is they who will reach the topmost height.“
32Dr. Buddha - Dukkhalogist Symptom: Dukkha – suffering, transitory, finite existence, life out of jointDiagnosis: Tanha – cause of suffering is desire/selfish craving based on egoism. Private fulfillment increases separateness. Tanha - always present when suffering is present, always absent when suffering is absentPrognosis: To cure Dukkha, get rid of Tanha - release from the narrow limits of self-interest into vast expanse of human life – How?Remedy/Prescription: The Eightfold Path
33Mindfulness Journal Quick Writes 1. Who do you surround yourself with? List people who enlighten you, people who drag you down.2. Write about a moment you had today when you feltAnxious, stressed, nervous, dissatisfied, wanting, etc. ORPeaceful, calm, relaxed, fulfilled, happy, etc.
34More Mindfulness Journal Quickies Stop and listen – what are you aware of about yourself or your surroundings of which you weren’t aware until you paid attention?4. What is most on your mind?5. What are you aware of about yourself or your world at this point of your life of which you were not aware as a child?
35Dukkha = life out of joint Trauma of birthSicknessAgingFear of deathBeing tied to what you hateBeing separated from what you love
36The Remedy - The Eightfold Path intentional living, rather than pulled and pushed by impulse and circumstanceseries of changes designed to release the individual from ignorance, impulse and TanhaPreliminary - Begin with Right Association - yoke wild elephant to tamed
37The Eightfold Path – Right… Belief – Noble Truths – make up mind, then…Intent - …Make up our hearts, dedicateSpeech –3 switches control us, become aware of what our speech reveals about us, of how many times and why we deviate from truth or kindness, of motivesConduct - understand motives before trying to change behavior - how generous/selfless, follow 5 PreceptsLivelihood - what occupies our time. Promote lifeEffort – Middle Way, slow and steady, like an oxMindfulness – Be aware, awake, consciousConcentration - Raja Yoga regeneration - change into a new creature who experiences the world in different way.
38Five Precepts Buddhist version of the Ten Commandments (2nd half) Knowing how deeply our lives intertwine, I undertake the training to abstain from:Killing living beingsTaking things not givenSexual misconductFalse speechIntoxicating drinks and drugs
39All in your Mind?The Dhammapada: "All we are is the result of what we have thought." "All things can be mastered by mindfulness.““There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so” – HamletFor Buddha ignorance, not sin, is the offender - sin is prompted by fundamental ignorance of our true nature
40Continuous self-awareness/examination - freedom from unconscious, robot-like existence See everything as it is - "If we maintain a steady attention to our thoughts and feelings, we perceive that they swim in and out of our awareness, and are in no way permanent parts of us….""We should witness all things non-reactively, especially our moods and emotions, neither condemning some nor holding onto others."
41Ways to practice Mindfulness Meditate on fearful and disgusting sights until they no longer bother us or repel usPervade world with thoughts of loving kindnessbecome aware of every action - when sleep takes over, whether breath is in or outspecial routine for complete withdrawalPacket page 17 and 18Mindfulness Experiment - Speech and Action
42Buddha's Insights1. Every emotion, thought or image is accompanied by a body sensation and vice versa2. Obsessive patterns arise in mind and these constitute misery/dukkha3. Every mental and physical state is in flux, none is solid and enduring, even pain - each is comprised of series of discrete sensations that can suddenly change.4. We have little control over our minds and physical sensations5. There is nobody behind the mental/physical eventsNo Self? No Observer? What up wit dat?
433 Marks of Existence Anicca - transitoriness/impermanence Dukkha – sufferingAnatta - absence of permanent identity/soul
44“All Things Must Pass” by George Harrison Sunrise doesn’t last all morningA cloudburst doesn’t last all daySeems my love has up and has left you with no warningIt’s not always going to be this way All things must pass All things must pass awaySunset doesn’t last all evening A mind can blow those clouds away After all this, my love is up and must be leaving It’s not always going to be this grey
45Anicca - Impermanence All Things Must Pass Regard this world: “As a star at dawn,a bubble in a stream,a flash of lightningin a summer cloud,a flickering lamp –a phantom - and a dream.”This applies to the self too – hence:
46Anatta – No Soul doctrine No soul/permanent self. What gets reborn?“Bad habits” – Desire/Fear threads each life to past and futureNo spiritual substance/soul transmitted - but ideas, impressions, feelings, consciousness, memoriesDesires and dislikes influencing my mind have lineagesNot bound by personal history - can break the chain through will
47Karma, Tanha, Samsara,Buddha's reincarnation differed from Hindus who attribute rebirth to KarmaBuddhists to Tanha - "as long as the wish to be a separate self persists, that wish would be granted. Desire is key - it is possible to step permanently out of the cycle of rebirth whenever one wished wholeheartedly to do so."
50Arhat who extinguishes all desires - reborn doesn't apply, not reborn doesn't apply. Response to disciple: You ought to be bewildered - this is "profound, recondite, hard to comprehend, rare, excellent, beyond dialectic, subtle, only to be understood by the wise."Supra-sonic?"blow out/extinguish" boundaries of finite self, left w/ boundless lifeNirvana
51Far transcends the power of words - individual awareness is eclipsed in the blazing light of total awareness like a star at sunrise"Some say the dewdrop slips into the shining sea - others prefer to think of the dewdrop opening to receive the sea itself.“"life of the Arhat is of increasing independence from the causal order of nature“Spiritual freedom brings largeness of life - Buddha "embodied more of reality.“If increased freedom brings increased being, total freedom brings BEING itself.
52Big Raft and Little Schism (split) btw Mahayana + Theravada Two Schools - both Yana - raft or ferry - both claim to carry people across life's shores to enlightenmentMaha - great, (Mahatma - Great souled), Hina - littleMahayana - "Buddhism for the people" - Big Raft - linked to the Buddha's "Great Renunciation"Hinayana - Little Raft - Theravada - Way of the Elders - linked to teachings in text
53“There Are Two Kinds of People?” 1. Are people dependent or interdependent2. Is the universe friendly/helpful or indifferent/hostile3. Is the best part of a human being the head or the heart? -Classicists rank thoughts above feelings, Romantics the opposite“There Are Two Kinds of People?”
54Theraveda / Hinayana Mahayana Where Sri Lank, Burma, Thailand, CambodiaChina, Korea, Japan, TibetHowBuddha’s vision of society: Monarchy, monastic community (Sangha), laityGrafted onto pre-existent civilizationsFocusWisdomCompassionBuddha’sExampleEntering NirvanaGreat Renunciation of Nirvana to preachThe IdealArhat – holy monk who remains in Nirvana after deathBodhisattva (wisdom being) who passes up Nirvana and vows to help all beings achieve enlightenmentGoalAttainment of Nirvana requires constant attention of monks, support of laityReligious practice is relevant to everyone
56Bodhisattva One whose Being – (Sattva) is Illumination – (Bodhi) Focus on Buddha’s renunciation of Nirvana to teach – on his compassionBuddha as saint
57Zen School of Buddhist thought and training in Japan Zen = Japanese mispronuncing ofCh’an = Chinese mispronuncing ofDhyana = Sanskrit for contemplationSpecial transmission outside scripture –from Buddha mind toBuddha mind – a successionof teachersZen
58Buddha holds a golden lotus – understood by none except Mahakayapa – passes down in India through 28 patriarchs and carried to China in 520 A.D. by BodhidharmaThe Lotus Sermon
59Words, Words, Wordslike stepping through Alice's looking glass - topsy-turvy wonderlandDesigned to break limits of normal human reason/logic, (Logic is a ladder), to blast through limitations of language – words are inadequate,Beyond words and ideas to experiences and realization (Enlightenment) =Satori
60Three aspects of Zen Training 1. Zazen – seated meditation2. Koan – logic-breaking riddles3. Sanzen – conference with master – validates, encourages, corrects
61Koan shortest one night, longest 12 years. “What is the sound of one hand clapping?”Reason is limited, a ladder too short to reach to truth’s full heights and must be supported by another way of knowingZen intends to upset the mind, unbalance it and eventually provoke revolt against limits of logic. Koan provokes, excites, exasperates and eventually exhausts the mind, reducing it to an impasse – must count on a sudden flash of insight
62Satori - Enlightenment See “being’s amazingness”“each equally a manifestation ofthe infinite” – trees, leaves,Life is BeautifulJewel is in the Lotus, (X in O)Unity of Buddha nature withinw/ Nirvanic world without“widen the doors of perception so that the wonder of the Satori experience can flood the everyday world.”
63Zen’s Influence on Japan Landscape paintingLandscape gardening – rock gardensMartial artsTea CeremonyHaiku
64Haiku I look in a dragonfly’s eye And see the mountains Over my shoulderThe flower I sawDrift back to the branchWas a butterfly
65Conduits Exp. of oneness with all, bliss thru self-emptying, transformative experience of seeing world differently“The Art of Attention”Kobe, Curt, Caddyshack, Karate Kid“Love, and do what you will” – St. AugustineIf you can’t find enlightenment indoing the dishes…
67Nirvana in single life-use all hum. energies Sounds, sights, motion can distract, but it doesn’t follow that they must.Channel physical energies into currents that carry spirit forward instead of derailing it.Mantras – convert noise and distracting chatter into holy formulaeMudras – choreographed hand gesturesMandalas – treat the eyes to icons whose holy beauty draws the beholder in their direction
68Prayer Flags Mantra Om Mane Padme Hung The Jewel is in the Lotus Also a form of the name for the Bodhisattva of compassion
69The Dalai Lama Bodhisattva – not pope or god-king Incarnates compassionUninterrupted current of spiritual influence –“As rainforests are to the earth’s atmosphere, someone has said, so are the Tibetan people to the human spirit in this time of its planetary ordeal” (144).The Dalai Lama
70The Three Jewels (Vows) I take refuge in the BuddhaI take refuge in the Dharma (8-fold path)I take refuge in the Sangha (community of Buddhists)
71The CrossingAfter reaching the other shore – leave raft, 5 precepts, 8fold path, dukkha, karma, nirvana – all vital to those crossing, but lose relevance to those who have arrived as a raft does on land.World is an activity of Nirvana itself – not the slightest distinction exists between themgood and evil disappearEarth is the lotus land, this body is Buddha’sBodhisattva’s vow not to enter Nirvana “until the grass itself be enlightened.”River connects the banks, rather than divides themBuddhism prominent in all Asian lands except India, which subsumed it, Buddhism sank back into the stream
72Thich Nhat Hanh Vietnamese Zen Monk Nominated by MLK in 1967 for Nobel Peace Prize for work rebuilding villages destroyed in Vietnam War