Presentation on theme: "The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?
2Learning GoalUnderstand the significance of Enlightenment thinkers and influence on US Government and history.
3ENLIGHTENMENT Shift in thinking "enlighten"—the idea of shedding light on something, illuminating it, making it clear.New philosophies dealt with government, religion, & relationships between peopleReason, natural law, hope, progress
4Philosophes (philosophers) Most were writers, professorsWere concerned with idea of human reasonIt can be applied to all areas of life
5philosophes cont.Opposed divine right to rule, no absolute monarchies & privileges of nobility & clergyPeople can govern themselves!!NO traditional religious values – some were atheist or Christian – most were deist
6JOHN LOCKE People are basically good. They enter into a contract with gov’t, and the gov’t is responsible for securing unalienable rights (life, liberty & property).If ruler becomes a tyrant, people have the right & duty to overthrowall people have natural rightsLife, liberty, property-influenced what?
7THOMAS HOBBES Leviathan – 1651 Man was basically bad If there is no government, humankind would fight & destroy themselvestherefore they make an agreement with the government for protection
8VOLTAIRE believed in reason, tolerance, and limited government Critic of Christianitydeist
9MONTESQUIEU separation of powers in the government (3 Branches) liberty of the people must be guarded from corrupt leaders
10ROUSSEAU Social Contract-society agrees to be governed People in civilized society were unhappy & selfishGovernment should what's best for everyone-majority rule
11Mary Wollstonecraft Considered the founder of women’s rights movement. Self-educated, magazine publisherDaughter was Mary Shelley-wrote Frankenstein“Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; - that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.”
12Thomas JeffersonInfluence from Locke and Rousseau- Life liberty & pursuit of happiness/social contractDeclaration of Independence-Individual liberties
13William BlackstoneBlackstone's main contribution was in his theory of common law (basis of legal system).Influenced U.S. Constitution-especially impeachment and the 2nd Amendment"... to the right of petitioning the king and parliament for redress of grievances; and, lastly, to the right of having and using arms for self-preservation and defense."
14HOW IT SPREAD Diderot – Encyclopedia Salons-gathering places more secular outlook
153-2-1 3- Give three new ideas from Enlightenment thinkers 2- Name two Enlightenment thinkers and explain their philosophy1- What idea from John Locke was used later in the Declaration of Independence? (one part was changed to fit their ideology)