Presentation on theme: "The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?
2 Learning GoalUnderstand the significance of Enlightenment thinkers and influence on US Government and history.
3 ENLIGHTENMENT Shift in thinking "enlighten"—the idea of shedding light on something, illuminating it, making it clear.New philosophies dealt with government, religion, & relationships between peopleReason, natural law, hope, progress
4 Philosophes (philosophers) Most were writers, professorsWere concerned with idea of human reasonIt can be applied to all areas of life
5 philosophes cont.Opposed divine right to rule, no absolute monarchies & privileges of nobility & clergyPeople can govern themselves!!NO traditional religious values – some were atheist or Christian – most were deist
6 JOHN LOCKE People are basically good. They enter into a contract with gov’t, and the gov’t is responsible for securing unalienable rights (life, liberty & property).If ruler becomes a tyrant, people have the right & duty to overthrowall people have natural rightsLife, liberty, property-influenced what?
7 THOMAS HOBBES Leviathan – 1651 Man was basically bad If there is no government, humankind would fight & destroy themselvestherefore they make an agreement with the government for protection
8 VOLTAIRE believed in reason, tolerance, and limited government Critic of Christianitydeist
9 MONTESQUIEU separation of powers in the government (3 Branches) liberty of the people must be guarded from corrupt leaders
10 ROUSSEAU Social Contract-society agrees to be governed People in civilized society were unhappy & selfishGovernment should what's best for everyone-majority rule
11 Mary Wollstonecraft Considered the founder of women’s rights movement. Self-educated, magazine publisherDaughter was Mary Shelley-wrote Frankenstein“Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; - that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.”
12 Thomas JeffersonInfluence from Locke and Rousseau- Life liberty & pursuit of happiness/social contractDeclaration of Independence-Individual liberties
13 William BlackstoneBlackstone's main contribution was in his theory of common law (basis of legal system).Influenced U.S. Constitution-especially impeachment and the 2nd Amendment"... to the right of petitioning the king and parliament for redress of grievances; and, lastly, to the right of having and using arms for self-preservation and defense."
14 HOW IT SPREAD Diderot – Encyclopedia Salons-gathering places more secular outlook
15 3-2-1 3- Give three new ideas from Enlightenment thinkers 2- Name two Enlightenment thinkers and explain their philosophy1- What idea from John Locke was used later in the Declaration of Independence? (one part was changed to fit their ideology)