Presentation on theme: "The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?"— Presentation transcript:
The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?
Learning Goal Understand the significance of Enlightenment thinkers and influence on US Government and history.
ENLIGHTENMENT Shift in thinking "enlighten"—the idea of shedding light on something, illuminating it, making it clear. New philosophies dealt with government, religion, & relationships between people Reason, natural law, hope, progress
Philosophes (philosophers) Most were writers, professors Were concerned with idea of human reason –It can be applied to all areas of life
philosophes cont. Opposed divine right to rule, no absolute monarchies & privileges of nobility & clergy People can govern themselves!! NO traditional religious values – some were atheist or Christian – most were deist
JOHN LOCKE People are basically good. They enter into a contract with gov’t, and the gov’t is responsible for securing unalienable rights (life, liberty & property). If ruler becomes a tyrant, people have the right & duty to overthrow all people have natural rights Life, liberty, property- influenced what?
THOMAS HOBBES Leviathan – 1651 Man was basically bad If there is no government, humankind would fight & destroy themselves therefore they make an agreement with the government for protection
VOLTAIRE believed in reason, tolerance, and limited government Critic of Christianity deist
MONTESQUIEU separation of powers in the government (3 Branches) liberty of the people must be guarded from corrupt leaders
ROUSSEAU Social Contract- society agrees to be governed People in civilized society were unhappy & selfish Government should what's best for everyone-majority rule
Mary Wollstonecraft Considered the founder of women’s rights movement. Self-educated, magazine publisher Daughter was Mary Shelley-wrote Frankenstein “Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; - that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.”
Thomas Jefferson Influence from Locke and Rousseau- Life liberty & pursuit of happiness/social contract Declaration of Independence- Individual liberties
William Blackstone Blackstone's main contribution was in his theory of common law (basis of legal system). Influenced U.S. Constitution- especially impeachment and the 2 nd Amendment "... to the right of petitioning the king and parliament for redress of grievances; and, lastly, to the right of having and using arms for self- preservation and defense."
HOW IT SPREAD Diderot – Encyclopedia Salons-gathering places more secular outlook
3-2-1 3- Give three new ideas from Enlightenment thinkers 2- Name two Enlightenment thinkers and explain their philosophy 1- What idea from John Locke was used later in the Declaration of Independence? (one part was changed to fit their ideology)