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The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of ENLIGHTENMENT According to the picture, what do you think influenced Enlightenment thinkers?

2 Learning Goal Understand the significance of Enlightenment thinkers and influence on US Government and history.

3 ENLIGHTENMENT Shift in thinking "enlighten"—the idea of shedding light on something, illuminating it, making it clear. New philosophies dealt with government, religion, & relationships between people Reason, natural law, hope, progress

4 Philosophes (philosophers) Most were writers, professors Were concerned with idea of human reason –It can be applied to all areas of life

5 philosophes cont. Opposed divine right to rule, no absolute monarchies & privileges of nobility & clergy People can govern themselves!! NO traditional religious values – some were atheist or Christian – most were deist

6 JOHN LOCKE People are basically good. They enter into a contract with gov’t, and the gov’t is responsible for securing unalienable rights (life, liberty & property). If ruler becomes a tyrant, people have the right & duty to overthrow all people have natural rights Life, liberty, property- influenced what?

7 THOMAS HOBBES Leviathan – 1651 Man was basically bad If there is no government, humankind would fight & destroy themselves therefore they make an agreement with the government for protection

8 VOLTAIRE believed in reason, tolerance, and limited government Critic of Christianity deist

9 MONTESQUIEU separation of powers in the government (3 Branches) liberty of the people must be guarded from corrupt leaders

10 ROUSSEAU Social Contract- society agrees to be governed People in civilized society were unhappy & selfish Government should what's best for everyone-majority rule

11 Mary Wollstonecraft Considered the founder of women’s rights movement. Self-educated, magazine publisher Daughter was Mary Shelley-wrote Frankenstein “Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; - that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.”

12 Thomas Jefferson Influence from Locke and Rousseau- Life liberty & pursuit of happiness/social contract Declaration of Independence- Individual liberties

13 William Blackstone Blackstone's main contribution was in his theory of common law (basis of legal system). Influenced U.S. Constitution- especially impeachment and the 2 nd Amendment "... to the right of petitioning the king and parliament for redress of grievances; and, lastly, to the right of having and using arms for self- preservation and defense."

14 HOW IT SPREAD Diderot – Encyclopedia Salons-gathering places more secular outlook

15 Give three new ideas from Enlightenment thinkers 2- Name two Enlightenment thinkers and explain their philosophy 1- What idea from John Locke was used later in the Declaration of Independence? (one part was changed to fit their ideology)


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