Presentation on theme: "Nisitapi The Real People Nisitapi The Real People."— Presentation transcript:
Nisitapi The Real People Nisitapi The Real People
The Blackfeet Tribe consists of three bands. The Blackfoot (Siksika) The Blood (Kainai) The Peigan (Pikuni) The only band that resides in the United States of America is the Southern Peigan. All other bands reside in Canada. McClintock, W. (1999). The Old North Trail: Life, Legends, and Religion of the Blackfeet Indians. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
The most northern band of the tribe. Running Rabbit (1900) Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet: Raiders of the Northwestern Plains. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
The Blood name was given to the band by the fur traders. Kainai means Many Chiefs. Bird Rattler (1916) Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet: Raiders of the Northwestern Plains. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
The band split into the Northern Pikuni and Southern Pikuni due to the US/Canada border. White Calf (1896) Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet: Raiders of the Northwestern Plains. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
The Blackfeet believe they have lived since time immemorial to the present. Genetics suggests the Blackfeet people migrated over the Bering Strait land bridge. Archeology has evidence of people being in the Blackfeet Territory at the end of the ice age 15,000 BP. Other evidence indicates the people are from 11,500 BP or the end of the Llano period and the start of the Folsom period which would be the beginning of the dog days for the Blackfeet. Citations on the following slides
Roberts, D.F., Fujiki, N. and Torizuka, N. (1992). Isolation, Migration and Health. 33rd Symposium Volume of the Society for Study of Human Biology.
Blood Type A: Central and Eastern Europe Type A is common in Central and Eastern Europe. In countries such as Austria, Denmark, Norway, and Switzerland, about 45-50% of the population have this blood type. The highest frequencies are found in small, unrelated populations. For example, about 80% of the Blackfoot Indians of Montana have blood type A. This suggests the Blackfeet’s immemorial bloodlines migrated out of East Africa and went east to Asia then over the Bering Strait. For more information check out: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2264/#ch2.1. 4Ch. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo ks/NBK2264/#ch2.1.4Ch.
15,000 BP at the end of the ice age Reeves conducted archeological digs throughout Southern Alberta and Glacier National Park and found evidence of occupancy that dates back to the end of the last Ice Age. 11,500 BP at the start of the Folsom period. Begley suggests that the first Americans occupied the area where the Blackfeet are currently at. Reeves, B. O. K. (2001). Our Mountains Are Our Pillows. Montana: Glacier National Park. Begley, S. (1999). The First Americans. Newsweek (Atlantic Edition), 133(23), 58.
The arrowheads found in the original homeland of the Blackfeet were dated back from 500-5,000 BP. All the arrowheads are consistent with the Blackfeet. http://www.trailtribes.org/greatfal ls/since-time-immemorial.htm
Language experts suggested that the Blackfeet language and tribe originated north of the Great Lakes region because of phonemic ties they made between the Blackfeet language and the Algonquin language. They believe the language and tribe migrated to the west from the Great Lakes region until they found the land they currently occupy. This is a misconception. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/ native/tribes/blackfeet/pastpreset.htm
Ives Goddard is the leading Algonquin language expert and employed at the Smithsonian Institute. Goddard believes, after his extensive research on the topic, that the language originated with the Blackfeet tribe around the Montana/Alberta area 8,000 BP and migrated in a West-to-East fashion to the Great Lakes dropping off subsets along the way. The Blackfeet language is the Proto-language for the Algonquin language which is why the languages are distinctly different. Goddard, I. (1994). The West-to- East Cline in Algonquian Dialectology. Ottawa: Carleton University.
Evidence (bison bones) suggests that the Blackfeet have been using this buffalo jump from about 6,000-3,000 BP. http://www.history.alberta.ca/hea dsmashedin/default.aspx
The Blackfeet did not migrate westward from the Great Lakes area. The Blackfeet lived from the North Saskatchewan River (north) to the Yellowstone River (south) and from the Continental Divide (west) to the headwaters of the Missouri River (east). Now, the tribe lives on reserved lands that are only a fraction of the original homeland. Clark, E. E. (1954). Indian Legends of the Northern Rockies. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press
The Blackfeet have left a culture based upon principles of hard work, self motivation, responsibility to become a positive role model, language, ceremonies (sun dance), customs (powwow, sweats), art/artwork, calendar sticks, buckskin timelines, shelters, traditional plant use knowledge, traditional games, hunting techniques, and buffalo jumps, etc. http://www.blackfeetnation.com/i ndex.php?option=com_content&vi ew=article&id=6&Itemid=18
http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoot/EN/flash/ index.htm http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoot/EN/flash/ index.htm This website gives viewers an opportunity to understand many aspects of the Blackfeet ways of life. “How We Lived with the Buffalo” provides simulations of buffalo jumps, camp life, uses of the buffalo, etc. http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoo t/EN/flash/index.htm
The Blackfeet were pedestrian in the dog days. At the beginning 1730, the Blackfeet began to acquire horses and became equestrian. Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet: Raiders of the Northwestern Plains. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
The Blackfeet filled their leisure time with traditional games, making tools, weapons, telling stories, discussing history, playing with dogs, and later on playing with horses. Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet: Raiders of the Northwestern Plains. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press McClintock, W. (1999). The Old North Trail: Life, Legends, and Religion of the Blackfeet Indians. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
Stick game http://wisdomoftheelders.org/201 1/08/01/program-208-tribal- rhythms/
The Blackfeet Tribe organized themselves into family and extended family, bands, and tribe. They also developed societies known for wisdom and leadership. The men and women each had a role to play in camp. The men hunted and protected while the women took care of the lodges and children. Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S. (2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press
The Blackfeet men centered on hunting and warfare. They were the role models for the boys. Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S. (2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press
The Blackfeet women centered on taking care of the lodge and the children. They pitch the camp, tan the hides, dry meat, cook, etc. Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S. (2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press
The Blackfeet used story hides, story sticks, winter counts, etc. They also used sodalities of age grade cohorts that were the first societies of a class system that was dependent upon entering and being a member of non-kinship societies. Upon graduation from the sodality societies, the following societies began with the mosquitoes, and by attaining the knowledge of present sodality level, was the way boys could purchase their way to next level of sodality or society. Thus, a culture based upon choosing to become a hardworking, self motivated, responsible, positive role model. http://www.trailtribes.org/greatfal ls/since-time-immemorial.htm
The Blackfeet controlled their bands through a level of society that was an option for young men at that age, known as the Crazy Dogs Society, and it was the closest thing to a police or security in the camp. The band was governed by a leader or chief that was the final say in the various aspects of the camp such as movement, spiritual, military, personal conflicts, etc. Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S. (2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press
Some of the Blackfeet’s customs included the Sun dance, sweats, powwows, drumming, singing, and dancing, bundles, prayers, smudge, etc. The Blackfeet believed the Sun is the Creator. Napi is a disciple of the Sun and created what we see today. Bullchild, P. (1985). The Sun Came Down: The history of the World as My Blackfeet Elders Told It. New York, NY: Harper & Row
McClintock, W. (1999). The Old North Trail: Life, Legends, and Religion of the Blackfeet Indians. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press
The Blackfeet Tribe was affected by all aspects involving European fur traders and establishments of military forts. Lowen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your American history textbook got wrong. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster
The Blackfeet had to deal with hardships that included diseases, guns, alcohol, assimilation, boarding schools, starvation, and reservations. Lowen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your American history textbook got wrong. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster
The Blackfeet Tribe had to succumb, assimilate, adapt, and overcome in order to survive to today. http://www.blackfeetnation.com/i ndex.php?option=com_content&vi ew=article&id=6&Itemid=18
Check out the Blackfeet Nations websites for each band for current events: http://siksikanation.com/ http://siksikanation.com/ http://bloodtribe.drupalgardens.com/ http://bloodtribe.drupalgardens.com/ http://www.blackfeetnation.com/index.php?o ption=com_content&view=article&id=6&Itemi d=18 http://www.blackfeetnation.com/index.php?o ption=com_content&view=article&id=6&Itemi d=18 http://siksikanation.com/ http://bloodtribe.drupalgardens.c om/ http://www.blackfeetnation.com/i ndex.php?option=com_content&vi ew=article&id=6&Itemid=18