Presentation on theme: "The Peopling of the Americas"— Presentation transcript:
1The Peopling of the Americas What different views exist regarding origins?What are traditional archaeological theories of origins?How are these archaeological theories being challenged?What are some of the ethical concerns in researching origins?
2Two Views of Origins Archaeological Before 1990 archaeologists and historians agreed the first inhabitants came from Asia across the Bering Strait when sea levels were lower (~ years BP)Since 1990 many questions surfaced contradicting this theory: Shared plant life, structures, diversity of native languages and so on fostered this questioning
3Two Views of Origins Aboriginal Perspectives Many First Peoples see Canada as their homelandThey believe they have been here since “Time Immemorial.”Aboriginal creation stories vary, but share one thing in common – Aboriginal peoples have no bond with any other place
4Gathering Archaeological Evidence Archaeologists use artifacts as evidence to help understand past societiesArtifacts can deteriorate with age therefore the method known as radiocarbon dating is usedThis process measures the age of carbon in artifacts and therefore tells how old an artifact isTools, utensils and weapons are all artifacts archaeologists use to learn many things about the way people lived
5Gathering EvidenceEvidence of Paleo-Indian is found in their unique toolsDNA analysis is now being used, however is quite expensive
7Traditional Archaeological Theory The earliest evidence came in the form of spear pointsStyle of spear points determined age and cultureThe Clovis Period– BPMany researchers believe hunters used spears to hunt some mammals into extinctionArchaeologists believed in this model so much they virtually stopped digging any deeper
8Traditional Archaeological Theory The Plano Period– years BPLarge mammals like the camel and mammoth disappeared around this timeDuring this time the Plano peoples – descendants of Paleo-Indian began hunting bisonChange in spear and arrowhead design came with the Plano peoples
9Linguistic Evidence Archaeology does not provide all the answers Linguistics show how language of cultures evolves over timeLanguage can explain culture, its interrelations and its differencesLinguistics shows that the more diversity there is in language – the more time has passedNorth America is one of the most linguistically diverse areas suggesting that First Peoples arrived here long before the Clovis period
10Physical Anthropology Study past by examining human remains (“CSI Historians”)Believe there were several migrations of people to the AmericasThey also believe early peoples came from different places at different times
11Theories of First People’s Origins The Land RouteGeologists believe during the last Ice Age (Pleistocene Era) sea levels were lower across the Bering Strait (between Alaska and East Asia)It is widely believed that many peoples may have migrated across this land bridge into N.A. between – years BP
12A Land RouteGeologists believe that during the last Ice Age, called the Pleistocene Era, sea levels were lower across the Bering Strait than they are today.A vast grassy plain called Beringia, or land bridge linked what is now called Siberia with Alaska.It is believed that at least 13,500-50,000 years ago early peoples migrated across to North America.Similar fossils discovered on both continents prove that large grazing animals – bison, caribou, horses, mammoths and musk oxen migrated across. Early peoples probably followed the herds of animals.A stone tool radiocarbon dated BP makes it possible that a Pacific Coastal route was taken.BP – Before Present
13Theories of First People’s Origins A Pacific RouteThis theory suggests people first came to N.A. by watercraft over the Pacific OceanFossil evidence in the Northwest Coast of sea and land wildlife suggests there were enough natural resources for people to surviveThere has been little archaeological exploration in this area due to the belief it was covered by glaciers
14A Pacific RouteSuggests that the First Peoples crosses the Pacific by watercraft.Fossil evidence of sea and land mammals and other wildlife dated years BP has been found along the Northwest CoastMay have inhabited South America first then moved on to North AmericaGenetic links
15Theories of First People’s Origins An Atlantic RouteBoth land bridge and Pacific theories are challenged by researchers who argue that early Asians didn’t have technology that matched those of the Clovis periodThey’ve found evidence showing more similarities to technology used along the Northern coast of SpainThere is also DNA evidence linking Aboriginals to Europeans and not AsiansThis suggests First Peoples may have come across the Atlantic
16An Atlantic RouteClovis projectile points are more similar to Solutrean points – found years BP where what is now the Northern Coast of Spain.Solutrean – an ancient culture of Western Europe dating from years agoGenetic markers linking Aboriginal Peoples to Europeans but not to Asians
17Could be a combination of all three which would explain the diversity of the First Peoples of the Americas.What do you think?
18Case StudyResearch the theories of the human migration to the Americas and develop an organizer/chart comparing the theories of first peoples’ origins .Include the following in your comparison:Brief description of the theory.Outline of the evidence supporting each theory.Arguments against each theory.