BARTLETT AND THE EFFECT OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY. War of the Ghosts 1932. Anybody?
SCHEMAS The role of schema. What are schemas, they are packets of information that we build up about the world. # A mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. # A structured cluster of pre-conceived ideas. # An organized pattern of thought or behavior. Structures which organize our knowledge and assumptions about something and are used for interpreting and processing information. 28
To be precise schema refers to an active organisation of past reactions, or of past experiences. It was Bartett’s research that made us aware that we blend elements of our own knowledge and experience to make it more memorable. 28
List (1986) applied the idea of schemas to a Shoplifting Scenario. Aims. Procedures. Methodological issues. Ethical issues. 29
So what are schemas. Quick task- Write down what is the first thing to come in to your mind when you eat at a restaurant. What your coming up with now is your Restaurant schema.
TUCKEY AND BREWER 2003 BANK ROBBERY SCHEMA. Male Wear a disguise. Wear dark clothes. Demand money from cashiers. Getaway car. That car has a driver in it. 29
Lindsay et al 2004. Read people accounts of a field trip to a palace or a palace burglary. Next day shown a video burglary of museum. Who made more mistakes. Why? People read the account of palace burglary Because the memory for events distorted by previous knowledge 29
ANXIETY Loftus (she is back) and Burns 1982. The one with the video and and the boy shot in the face. Ps had significantly poorer recall for events running up to the violent incidence. 30
Christianson and Hubinette 1993 They suggest that real incidents with real stress can be accurate detailed and long lasting. They had 110 people who had witnessed between them 22 genuine bank robberies. Some bystanders some directly threatened by robbers The victims who had been subject to greatest anxiety had more accurate recall.
AGE OF WITNESS Children more willing to make a positive identification even if it is wrong. Poole and lindsay (2001) What are the Aims Procedures Methodolgical issues Ethical issues with this study 30-31
Flin et al. 1992 found that long delays effect the accuracy in young children. Gordon et al (2001) found that children suscuptible to suggestion. Old people also prone to errors in recall. 31
CONSEQUENTIALITY No serious consequences for Lab based studies. Foster et al (1994) What did they find out? 31-32
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Some people more susceptible than others. According to Tomes and Katz (1997) these people share certain characteristics. They generally have poorer recall for the event. They score high on measures of imagery vividness. They have high scores on measures of empathy. 32
PEOPLE WILL RESIST MISLEADING INFORMATION IF IT IS BLATANTLY WRONG Loftus (1979) Red purse. All but two resisted it being called a brown purse. 32
Outline and evaluate research into the effects of Anxiety on the accuracy of Eyewitness testimony. 12 Marks.