Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to leadership 1.Leader: An individual who is able to influence group or organizational members to help the group or organization achieve."— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to leadership 1.Leader: An individual who is able to influence group or organizational members to help the group or organization achieve its goal. 2. Leadership: The exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization over other members to help the group or organization achieve its goals.
3 3.1 Formal leader: A member of an organization who is given authority by the organization to influence other organizational member to achieve organizational goals. Ex: Marketing Manager, GM.,Director Prime Minister etc. These managers are leaders because they have subordinates who report for them.
4 3.2 Informal leader An organization member with no formal authority to influence others who nevertheless is able to exert considerable influence because of the special skills or talents Ex: Accounting manager has no subordinates who report to him or her. Ex: The waiter who was the most experienced and has the best interpersonal skills became the informal leader of the group.
5 EARLY APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP 1 The trait approach: Early study of leadership sought to identify enduring personal trait that distinguish leader from followers and effective from ineffective leader. The traits are a person’s particular tendencies to feel, think, and act in a certain ways
6 Several traits that showed the strongest relationship to effective leadership Intelligence helps a leader solve complex problems. Task relevant knowledge ensures that a leader knows what has to be done, how it should be done and what resources are required for a group and organization to achieve its goals. Dominance, an individual’s need to exert
7 EARLY APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP 2 The leader behavior approach - Consideration Behavior indicate that a leader trusts, respects, and values good relationships with his or her followers - Initiating behavior that a leader engages in to make sure that work get done and subordinates perform their jobs acceptably
8 Fielder’s Contingency Theory of Leadership The theory that leader effectiveness is determined by both the personal characteristics of leaders and by the situations in which leaders find themselves Fielder’s theory sheds light on two important leadership issues: 1.Why some leaders will be more effective than other leaders even though they have equally good credentials.
9 2.Why a particular leader may be effective in one situation but not in another. LEADER STYLES Relationship-oriented Task-oriented Which style of leadership is most effective depends on the kind of situation the leader is dealing with. An organization must either assign leaders to situations in which they will be effective or change the situation to fit the leader.
10 Fielder’s leader style: Relationship-oriented leaders Think positively about others because a positive outlook fosters good relationships. Task-oriented leaders Think negatively about others who are difficult to work with because their undesired behavior might hinder task achievement
11 Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership PATH-GOAL THEORY: how leaders motivate followers to achieve goals and kinds of behaviors they can engage in to accomplish that. This theory suggests that effective leaders follow three guidelines to motivate their followers: 1.Determined what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace. Salary raises and the opportunity to work.
12 2.Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes. Receive not only the biggest raise but also the choicest assignments 3.Make sure the subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level. Remove any obstacles that might come up along the way and express confidence in their subordinates’ capacities
13 Robert House, a wisely respected leadership researcher identified four types of behavior to motivate subordinates: Directive Behavior Supportive Behavior Participative Behavior Achievement-oriented Behavior
14 THE VROOM AND YETTON MODEL: Participation in Decision Making - Developed in the 1970s, it describes the different ways in which leaders can make decisions. -Identifies 4 different decision-making styles: Autocratic: decision made without input from subordinates Consultative: Subordinates have some input, the leader makes decision. Group: the group makes decision; the leader is just another group member Delegated: The leader gives responsibility to subordinates.
15 New Topics in Leadership Research I. Transformational and Charismatic Transformational Leadership: Leadership that inspires followers to trust the leader perform behaviors thatcontribute to the achievement of the organization goals, and perform at the high level. Charismatic Leader: A self confident, enthusiastic leader able to win the followers ’s respect and support for his or her vision of how good things could be.
16 II THE EFFECT OF LEADER MOOD Leader mood at work and levels of emotional intelligence have the potential to influence leader effectiveness. Preliminary research suggests that when leader tend to be in a good mood at work, their subordinates may perform at a higher level and be less likely to resign. III GENDER AND LEADERSHIP Women and men do not appear to differ in the leadership behavior that they perform in the organization. Women, however, appear to be more democratic or participative than men as leaders. Thanks!!!!!!