14-3 Learning Objectives Explain what leadership is, when leaders are effective and ineffective, and the sources of power that enable managers to be effective leaders. Identify the traits that show the strongest relationship to leadership, the behaviors leaders engage in, and the limitations of the trait and behavioral models of leadership.
14-4 Learning Objectives Explain how contingency models of leadership enhance our understanding of effective leadership and management in organizations. Describe what transformational leadership is, and explain how managers can engage in it. Characterize the relationship between gender leadership.
14-5 The Nature of Leadership Leadership –The process by which a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals.
14-6 The Nature of Leadership Leader –An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals
14-7 The Nature of Leadership Personal Leadership Style –The specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence others shapes the way that manager approaches the other principal tasks of management. –The challenge is for managers at all levels to develop an effective personal management style.
14-8 The Nature of Leadership Distinction between managers and leaders –Managers establish and implement procedures to ensure smooth functioning –Leaders look to the future and chart the course for the organization
14-9 Leadership Across Cultures Leadership styles may vary among different countries or cultures. –European managers tend to be more people-oriented than American or Japanese managers. –Japanese managers are group-oriented, while U.S managers focuses more on profitability. –Time horizons also are affected by cultures.
14-10 Sources of Managerial Power Figure 14.1
14-11 Power: The Key to Leadership Legitimate Power –The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in the firm.
14-12 Power: The Key to Leadership Reward Power –The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards. –Effective managers use reward power to signal to employees that they are doing a good job.
14-13 Power: The Key to Leadership Coercive Power –The ability of a manager to punish others. Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cuts, and dismissal Limited in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects.
14-14 Power: The Key to Leadership Expert Power –Power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses. –Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching manner
14-15 Power: The Key to Leadership Referent Power –Power that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect, admiration, and loyalty –Possessed by managers who are likable and whom subordinates wish to use as a role model
14-16 Empowerment: An Ingredient in Modern Management Empowerment –The process of giving employees at all levels in the organization the authority to make decisions, be responsible for their outcomes, improve quality, and cut costs
14-17 Empowerment: An Ingredient in Modern Management Empowerment increases a manager’s ability to get things done Empowerment increases workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitment Empowerment gives managers more time to concentrate on their pressing concerns
14-18 Leadership Models Trait Model –Attempt to identify personal characteristics that cause for effective leadership. –Research shows that certain personal characteristics do appear to be connected to effective leadership. –Many “traits” are the result of skills and knowledge and effective leaders do not necessarily possess all of these traits.
14-19 Leadership Models Behavioral Model –Identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinates
14-20 Leadership Models Behavioral Model –Consideration: leaders show subordinates they trust, respect, and care about them –Managers look out for the well-being of their subordinates –Do what they can to help subordinates feel good and enjoy the work they perform
14-21 Leadership Models Behavioral Model –Initiating structure: leaders take steps to make sure that work gets done, subordinates perform their work acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effective –Managers assign tasks to groups and let subordinates know what is expected of them
14-22 Contingency Models of Leadership Contingency Models –What makes a manager an effective leader in one situation is not necessarily what that manager needs to be equally effective in another situation
14-23 Contingency Models of Leadership Contingency Models –Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the interplay between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership takes place
14-24 Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s Model –Effective leadership is contingent on both the characteristics of the leader and of the situation. –Leader style is the enduring, characteristic approach to leadership that a manager uses and does not readily change.
14-25 Contingency Models of Leadership Fiedler’s Model –Relationship-oriented style: leaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them. –Task-oriented style: leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level so the job gets done.
14-26 Fiedler’s Model Situation Characteristics –Leader-member relations – extent to which followers like, trust, and are loyal to their leader –Task structure – extent to which the work to be performed is clear-cut so that a leader’s subordinates know what needs to be accomplished and how to go about doing it
14-27 Fiedler’s Model Situation Characteristics –Position Power - the amount of legitimate, reward, and coercive power leaders have due to their position. When positional power is strong, leadership opportunity becomes more favorable.
14-28 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Figure 14.2
14-29 House’s Path-Goal Theory A contingency model of leadership proposing that effective leaders can motivate subordinates to achieve goals by: 1.Clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates are trying to obtain from their jobs. 2.Rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for high-performance and attainment of work goals 3.Clarifying the paths leading to the attainment of work goals
14-30 Motivating with Path-Goal Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors: –Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things. –Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest.
14-31 Motivating with Path-Goal Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors: –Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them. –Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities.
14-32 Motivating with Path-Goal Which behavior to be used depends on the nature of the subordinates and the kind of work they do
14-33 The Leader Substitutes Model Leadership Substitute –Acts in the place of a leader and makes leadership unnecessary. –Worker empowerment or self-managed work teams reduce leadership needs.
14-34 The Leader Substitutes Model Possible substitutes can be found in: –Characteristics of the subordinates: their skills, experience, motivation. –Characteristics of context: the extent to which work is interesting and fun.
14-35 Transformational Leadership Leadership that: 1.Makes subordinates aware of the importance of their jobs are for the organization and how necessary it is for them to perform those jobs as best they can so that the organization can attain its goals
14-36 Transformational Leadership 2.Makes subordinates aware of their own needs for personal growth, development, and accomplishment 3.Motivates workers to work for the good of the organization, not just for their own personal gain or benefit
14-37 Being a Charismatic Leader Charismatic Leader –An enthusiastic, self-confident transformational leader able to clearly communicate his vision of how good things could be
14-38 Being a Charismatic Leader Charismatic Leader –Being excited and clearly communicating excitement to subordinates. –Openly sharing information with employees so that everyone is aware of problems and the need for change. –Empowering workers to help with solutions. –Engaging in the development of employees by working hard to help them build skills.
14-39 Intellectual Stimulation –Manager leads subordinates to view problems as challenges that they can and will meet and conquer –Manager engages and empowers subordinates to take personal responsibility for helping to solve problems
14-40 Developmental Consideration –Manager supports and encourages subordinates, giving them opportunities to enhance their skills and capabilities and to grow and excel on the job
14-41 Transactional Leadership Transactional Leaders –Use their reward and coercive powers to encourage high performance—they exchange rewards for performance and punish failure. –Push subordinates to change but do not seem to change themselves.
14-42 Gender and Leadership The number of women managers is rising but is still relatively low in the top levels of management. Stereotypes suggest women are supportive and concerned with interpersonal relations. Similarly, men are seen as task-focused.
14-43 Gender and Leadership Research indicates that actually there is no gender-based difference in leadership effectiveness. Women are seen to be more participative than men because they adopt the participative approach to overcome subordinate resistance to them as managers and they have better interpersonal skills.
14-44 Emotional Intelligence and Leadership The Moods of Leaders: –Groups whose leaders experienced positive moods had better coordination –Groups whose leaders experienced negative moods exerted more effort
14-45 Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Emotional Intelligence –Helps leaders develop a vision for their firm. –Helps motivate subordinates to commit to the vision. –Energizes subordinates to work to achieve the vision.