4Economic Tensions Demobilization causes massive unemployment During WWI, industrial production doubled, agricultural production tripledAnd when the war ended?Inflation after the WarSpending spree (after much saving)InflationA rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economyWhen the price level rises, currency buys fewer goods and servicesUnemployment + Inflation = Recession
5Labor Tensions Businesses return to prewar labor practices No more cooperation or the mediation of disputes by the War Labor BoardCorporations fought unions and the gains they had madeAFL (American Federation of Labor)Group of unions represented skilled laborers“bread and butter” issues (better wages/better conditions)The more radical Wobblies (I.W.W.) wanted more3600 strikes across the U.S. in 1919
6Labor Tensions In Seattle In Boston 35, 000 shipyard workers were joined by 100,000 more in a general strikeIn BostonThe police force walked off the job with the support and sympathy of the citizens, at firstAnarchy resultedCalvin Coolidge as Governor of Massachusetts“There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time.”
7Unions Lose Public Support and Membership Americans viewed unions as a threatStrike related violence could lead to anarchyThe strikes didn’t achieve lasting effects“Politics” of union membershipUnskilled workers often were left outImmigrants were not welcomedAfrican-Americans were excludedThe Supreme Court rejected child labor laws and minimum wage laws
8Bomb Scares Fuel Fear of Radicals Senators, mayors, business leaders and even a Supreme Court justice either received bomb packages or were going toRadicalism = extreme change in the social or economic structuresCould be Communists, Socialists or Anarchists (who are opposed to all systems of government)Communism called for the public ownership of all means of production leading to a classless societyThe Bolshevik Revolution in Russia accomplished thisThe Red Scare
9The Red Scare Leads to Raids on Subversives Attorney General Mitchell Palmer and his assistant J. Edgar Hoover raid homes, businesses and meeting places often without cause (known as “Palmer Raids”)Civil Liberties were trampled
10Increasing Social Tension Nativism“they” could never be 100% American“they” are overcrowding our cities and taking our jobsEmergency Immigration Act of 1921Set quotas to limit immigrationThe Ku Klux KlanAnti-Jewish, anti-black, anti-immigrant, anti-CatholicTheir membership reached 3-4 million in the 1920’sIn 1920 the ACLU was founded to defend those whose rights were being violated (not always popular)
11Enduring Racial and Religious Tension Race riots exploded as a result of the Great MigrationBlack veterans couldn’t find jobs (white veterans had their jobs taken by blacks)Back to Africa MovementMarcus GarveyRaised the question of a separate society versus an integrated oneAnti-SemitismPrejudice against JewsThe Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is founded to combat discrimination against Jews
12The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti A Case Study for Understanding Post- World War One AmericaECONOMIC TENSIONS:LABOR TENSIONS:POLITICAL TENSIONS:SOCIAL TENSIONS:
13Chapter 27: the politics of normalcy Did the Republican Era of the 1920’s bring peace and prosperity to all Americans?
16Chapter 28: Popular culture in the roaring twenties What social trends and innovations shaped popular culture during the 1920’s?
17Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s A new consumer cultureNew appliances, electricity in homesAdvertising builds demandInstallment buying allows credit
18Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s Americans take to the road and airCharles Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis become heroesBarnstorming air shows with wing walkers gain popularityAmelia Earhart flies solo across the AtlanticHenry Ford mass produces affordable automobilesThe isolation of farm life endsSuburbs can growRoadside advertising becomes big business
19Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s The importance of mass mediaNewspapers and magazines keep Americans informedRadio pioneers like David Sarnoff provide entertainment (NBC)Music, comedies, dramas all on the radioPeople flock to movie housesThe Jazz Singer was the first full length “talkie”“Radio told the masses what to do, movies showed them how to do it.”Fashions, hair styles, behaviors
20Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s Women move toward greater equalityLeague of Women Voters to educate women on the issues and support political activityEqual Rights Amendment championed by Alice Paul is proposed but never ratifiedWomen enter professions, seek greater opportunities and rebel against traditional roles, clothing, behavior and customsMargaret Sanger opens the country’s first family planning clinic
22Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s The “Jazz Age”Distinctly American form of musicAfrican rhythms, European harmonies, African-American folk musicImprovisation not necessarily a written scoreHarlem in NYC doubled in population with the Great MigrationThe most famous club of all was the Cotton Club
23Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s (writers and artists) Harlem Renaissance“revival” or “rebirth”The Great Migration congregated black populations in large, northern citieswar opportunitieslimits in immigrationpoor conditions in the south and oppression by whitesNone larger than in Harlem, New YorkMother to Son by Langston Hughes Well, son, I’ll tell you: Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair. It’s had tacks in it, and splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor - Bare. But all the time I’se been a-climbin’ on, And reachin’ landin’s, And turnin’ corners, And sometimes goin’ in the dark Where there ain’t been no light. So boy, don’t you turn back. Don’t you set down on the steps ‘Cause you finds it’s kinder hard. Don’t you fall now- For I’se still goin’, honey, I’se still climbin’, And life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.
24Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s (writers and artists) Jazz Age AuthorsF. Scott FitzgeraldMoral emptiness, lost promises from World War IThe Lost GenerationCritical of American lifeMany headed to Parise.e. cummings used no capital lettersArtists like Georgia O’Keeffe found inspiration in nature
25Pop. Culture Trends of the 1920’s (sports heroes)
26Chapter 29: The class between traditionalism and modernism How did social, economic and religious tensions divide Americans during the Roaring Twenties?
27TRADITIONALISTSMODERNISTSRespect for long held social, cultural and religious valuesThose provide stability and orderA desire for the “simple life”Embrace of new ideas, styles and social trendsTraditional values were chains that restricted individual freedoms and the pursuit of happiness
28Urban Attractions and Rural Problems Life in the CityWages and per capita income roseStandards of living improvedMovies, museums, concerts, clubsLife in the CountryNew ideas and behaviors were cause for suspicionCrop prices fell after the war and farmers could not pay loansThe Republican administrations did not want to interfere with the markets and help
29Urban Modernists vs. Rural Traditionalists Small town values were mocked by modernists while the traditionalists fought to preserve and defend all that was good in American lifeCities = immoral, materialistic, money-grubbingFundamentalism in the country = the idea that religious texts and beliefs should be taken literally and treated as the ultimate authority on behaviorBilly Sunday gained popularity as the most prominent fundamentalist preacher of the dayRural areas were losing population to the cities
30The Young vs. The Old High School and college enrollment was growing Youth PerspectiveAduLT PERSPECTIVEHigh School and college enrollment was growingFads and trends developFlappers w/ their new clothing styles and behaviorsMass media and cars provide “escapes”The young were reckless and immoralThe Hays Office issues moral codes for movie behaviorLegislate more conservative behavior
31Wets vs. DrysDry perspectiveWet perspectiveSupport the 18th amendment (Volstead Act) for a happier and healthier societyProhibition would help control “foreign” influencesGovernment couldn’t (or shouldn’t) legislate moralityToo difficult to enforceSpeakeasies allowed drinking in secret clubsBootleggers got rich
32Creationism vs. Evolution Charles DarwinThe Bible is the word of God
33Creationism vs. Evolution Natural SelectionSurvival of the Fittest“Social Darwinism”The fittest or most powerful should rule the less powerfulScience can explain how the physical world worksTaken literally, “God created the Universe.”Fear of eugenicsThe human species could be improved by forbidding people with undesirable characteristics from reproducing
34The Scopes “Monkey” Trial (1925) Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution holds that inherited characteristics of a population change over generations, which sometimes results in the rise of a new species.According to Darwin, the human species may have evolved from an ape-like species that lived long ago.Fundamentalists think this theory is against the biblical account of how God created humans and that teaching evolution undermines religious faith.Laws were passed preventing evolution being taught in schoolsOne group in Tennessee persuaded a young science teacher named John Scopes to violate the law, get arrested, and go to trial.
35The Scopes “Monkey” Trial (1925) Scopes was represented by Clarence Darrow, and William Jennings Bryan, three-time candidate for president, represented the prosecution.John Scopes was obviously guilty, but the trial was about larger issues.Scopes was convicted and fined $100The Tennessee law remained in place until the 1960s.