Presentation on theme: "Chapter 29 Traditionalism Vs Modernism. traditionalists People who have deep respect for long held values in religion and culture. These things brought."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 29 Traditionalism Vs Modernism
traditionalists People who have deep respect for long held values in religion and culture. These things brought order and stability in society.
modernist Embraced new ideas, styles and social trends. For them traditional ideas restricted their ability to live and enjoy life.
flappers Were daring young women who wore short skirts and make up. They were covered with beads and wore short hair and hats. The name comes from the rain boots they wore that flapped around.
Volstead Act The act by Congress which enforced the 18 th Amendment. It never gave the Prohibition Bureau the resources to combat the illegal Alcohol trade.
speakeasies Were bars where people drank illegal alcohol and listened to music or danced. They were given their name because you were supposed to speak easy about the location so as not to alert the police.
Scopes Trial Was a trial in Tennessee which argued the question of whether teaching evolution could be banned. William Jennings Bryan was the prosecution and Clarence Darrow was the defense. Scopes lost but was only fined 100 dollars. A year later the case was overturned.
After World War I the demand for farm products dropped sharpely, as did crop prices. As farm incomes declined, many farmers could not pay back loans they had taken out to buy new machines or extra land during the prosperous war years. Hundreds of thousands of farmers lost their farms as their share of the national income dropped steadily through out the decade.
As many young people of the 1920s spent more time outside the home, a new youth culture emerged. Rather than being based in traditional family values, the culture revolved around school, clubs, sports, music, dances, dating, movies, and fads like flagpole sitting, marathon dances and crossword puzzels.
Flappers broke with traditional views on how women should look and behave. They cut their hare short, wore skimpy clothing and makeup, and went to jazz clubs to dance. The wild behavior of flappers demonstrated that many young women were not content to fllow traditional roles.
Traditionalists and progressive reformers pointed to evidence that alcoholism caused crime, violence, and the breakup of families; they saw prohibition as a way to eliminate such ills. Some rural drys saw prohibition as a way to tame city life. Anti-immigration sentiment also played a role in the support of prohibition, as some traditionalist associated drinking with immigrants and saw prohibition as a way to curb foreign influences.
Opponents argued that prohibition increased illegal behavior rather than leading to a healthier, happier, society. They pointed to the rise of violence, crime, and corruptions surrounding the bootlegging business. Eventually these factors decreased the support for prohibition, and in 1933 the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the 18 th Amendment.
While modernists looked to scientific theories such as evolution to understand how the physical world worked, many traditionalist saw evolution in conflict with their belief that God created the universe. Some states banned the teaching of evolution in public schools, and the trail of John Scopes for breaking such a ban put the clash between and science and religion on display. William Jennings Bryan represented the state of Tennessee and Clarence Darrow defended Scopes. In the end, Scopes was found guilty of breaking the law, but the trial put fundamentalists on the defensive.
Epperson vs. Arkansas (19680) Supreme Court ruled that a law banning the teaching of evolution violated the First Amendment. Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971); Established a measure to determine when and whether a government violates the First Amendment. Edwards v. Aguillard (1987): Supreme Court used “Lemon Test” to rule that Louisiana's Creation Act violated the First Amendment. Dover, Pennsylvania Case against school board(2005): Judge ruled that intelligent design, a new theory of creation, is a religious view and therefore cannot be taught in the public schools.