3Ghost of Christmas Past Purpose: Helps Scrooge recover feeling, memory and imagination
4Victorian England (London) SettingVictorian England (London)ChristmastimeMid-1800s
5Symbolism Fog: Scrooge’s unclear thinking Marley’s Chain: Greed and materialismFred: Joy/Christmas Cheer/Hope for second chanceJet of light: TruthCap: Hiding the truthMourning-dress: loss of love
6Similes/Metaphors Simile Metaphor “In came a fiddler with a music-book, and went up to the lofty desk, and made an orchestra of it, and tuned like fifty stomach-aches.”Metaphor“In came Mrs. Fezziwig, one vast substantial smile.”
7Irony“The happiness he gives is quite as great as if it costs a fortune.” When he sees the happiness of his younger self as an apprentice for Fezziwig, he realizes has been treating his own clerk the opposite way. Perhaps if he gave up just a small amount, it could make his workplace much happier.
8FlashbackOccurs when a past event is interjected into the chronological sequence of events in a story. This device is used to provide information that would not otherwise be available to the reader.School as young child (Regrets his treatment of the young caroler)School (deteriorating) as teen/Fan arrives to take him home (Remembers loss of Fan and regrets not being closer with her only son, Fred)Apprenticeship at Fezziwig’s (Realizes importance of treating employees well, and that how just a small gesture can mean a great deal of happiness to others)Loss of Belle (Regrets allowing his love for money to replace his love for Belle)Belle’s family (Scrooge sees family and happiness that could have been his own.)
9ThemeAs we go through life, our most important job is to lighten the burdens of others and reduce suffering.The spirit of Christmas, giving, and helping others should always be with us.