Point of View Third Person Omniscient: We are told everything about the story, including the thoughts and feelings of all the characters and even information in the narrator’s mind which no one knows.
Conflict Internal (Man vs Self): Scrooge is forced to face his failures in life Interpersonal (Man vs Man): Scrooge vs Marley/ his nephew Fred Man vs Society Scrooge despises Christmas and tries to ruin the spirit of Christmas for everyone around him.
Setting Victorian England (London) Christmastime Mid-1800s
Mood/Atmosphere Warmth of nephew: “A merry Christmas, Uncle!” cried a cheerful voice…He had so heated himself with rapid walking in the fog and frost, this nephew of Scrooge’s, that he was all in a glow; his face ruddy and handsome; his eyes sparkled, and his breath smoked again. Versus Coldness of Scrooge: “The cold within him froze his old features, nipped his pointed nose, shriveled his cheek, stiffened his gait, made his eyes red, his thin lips blue, and spoke out shrewdly in his grating voice.
Symbolism Fog: Scrooge’s unclear thinking Marley’s Chain: Greed and materialism Fred: Joy/Christmas Cheer/Hope for second chance One lump of coal: stinginess
Theme As we go through life, our most important job is to lighten the burdens of others and reduce suffering. The spirit of Christmas, giving, and helping others should always be with us.
Allusion “If we were not perfectly convinced that Hamlet’s father died before the play began, there would be nothing more remarkable in his taking a stroll at night, in an easterly wind, upon his own ramparts, than there would be in any other middle-aged gentleman rashly turning out after dark in a breezy spot-say Saint Paul’s Churchyard for instance-literally to astonish his son’s weak mind.” (Hamlet by William Shakespeare) “The fireplace was an old one…designed to illustrate the Scriptures. There were Cains and Abels…Abrahams, Belshazzars, Apostles putting off to Sea in butter boats, hundreds of figures to attract his thoughts…” (Biblical references)
Similes/Metaphors Similies “Old Marley was as dead as a doornail.” “…solitary as an oyster.” Metaphors “…the houses opposite were mere phantoms.”
Parallelism Repetition of grammatical pattern, which is used to emphasize related ideas. Example “Merry Christmas! What right have you to be merry? What reason have you to be merry? You’re poor enough.” “Come, then,” replied the nephew gaily. “What right have you to be dismal? What reason have you to be morose? You’re rich enough.”
Repetition for Effect The word sole is repeated to emphasize the solitude and loneliness of Scrooge. “Scrooge was his sole executor, his sole administrator, his sole assign, his sole residuary legatee, his sole friend, and sole mourner.” The word melancholy is repeated to emphasize the sadness of Scrooge’s life. “Scrooge took his melancholy dinner in his usual melancholy tavern.”