Presentation on theme: "Elements of Emotion Emotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by : – physical arousal = physiological arousal – Expressive behavior:"— Presentation transcript:
Elements of Emotion Emotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by : – physical arousal = physiological arousal – Expressive behavior: reveals the emotion to outside world – Consciously experienced thoughts: inner awareness of feelings Display rules - learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings. – control or display?
Common Sense tells us… a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion FIRST…physiological reaction, THEN…labeling of an emotion. different physiological states correspond to different experiences of emotion. feel sad because you cry feel angry because you strike feel happy because you smile Support: Neck-level spinal cord injuries…reduce intensity of emotions
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Challenged JL since similar patterns of physiological activity associated with diff emotional states. (ex. anger & fear) – NOT cause…effect physiological reaction & the emotion occur at the same time. – Cerebral cortex = subjective awareness of emotion… – Sympathetic nervous system = physiological arousal
Schachter and Singer’s Study of Emotion Emotion results from physiological arousal plus a cognitive label. Two-FACTOR: 2 ingredients – Cognitive label: based on perceptions, memories, interpretation Explains arousal in emotional terms – Physical arousal fuels emotion – Cognition channels it
Spillover Effect Tendency of one person's emotion to affect how other people around them feel. Emotional Volatility – For example, the teacher received a phone call that his wife was pregnant with a much-awaited baby. He goes into class happy and excited, & although he doesn't tell his class about the good news, his good mood rubs off on his students & they feel happy as well. Experiment: injected with adrenaline – An emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal – Same physical arousal Exposed to “angry” man, interpreted physical arousal as anger exposed to “happy” man interpreted arousal as happiness
Romeo and Juliet Effect Misattribution of emotions~ – assign arousal to passionate love instead of anger from lack of freedom Tendency for parental opposition to a relationship to intensify the romantic feelings of those in the relationship. The effect involves an increased commitment to persevere in the midst of parental opposition & interference.
Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron (In support of 2 Factor Theory) Male subjects were asked to meet an attractive female interviewer in the middle of one of two bridges. safe-looking bridge vs. dangerous (high & narrow). An attractive female researcher interviewed the male passers-by in the middle of the two bridges. She gave them her telephone number in case they wanted to ask about the results. They were then more likely to call her back, looking for a date. Men on the less safe-looking bridge were more aroused by the height of the bridge, and were likely to confuse their feelings for being 'lovestruck'.
Cognitive Mediational Theory of Emotion Cognitive appraisal of a stimulus determines your emotional response to it, physiological arousal follows the cognitive appraisal. – both the physical arousal & the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment – must occur before the emotion is experienced. – stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response & an emotional reaction. Dual processing: The brain gets a message that causes the experience of emotion at the same time that the autonomic nervous system gets a message that causes physiological arousal. Equipped ?
Theories of Emotion Opponent Process Our emotions tend to trigger opposing emotions. Then there is balance. A way to maintain a steady state—homeostasis As experiences are repeated wide swings in emotion are lessened, and things become more manageable! – Costs of pleasure & the benefits of pain Examples: – You almost get into a car accident—you are afraid—once it’s over you feel relief – You yell at your boyfriend and are angry; later to feel guilty and you apologize
Duchenne's investigations mapping the muscles of the face
The Old Man "The Mechanisms of Human Facial Expression","The Mechanisms of Human Facial Expression", –(published in French 1862) experimentation in the perception and communication of human facial affect.experimentation in the perception and communication of human facial affect.
"The Old Man“ Duchenne's principal photographic subjectDuchenne's principal photographic subject –afflicted with almost total facial anesthesia. ideal subject for this investigation,ideal subject for this investigation, –stimulating electrodes used were ‘certainly somewhat uncomfortable, if not actually painful’.
‘Electrization apparatuses’ electrical stimulation served as the diagnostic test in localization.electrical stimulation served as the diagnostic test in localization. "faradism," the application of electricity to the skin for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. "faradism," the application of electricity to the skin for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. –stimulate the nerves and muscles of patients. –map the muscles of the body and note their functions
Duchenne electrically stimulates the musculature of the face of an actress of the French Comedy with the purpose of modifying emotions expressed by her face.
mapped 100 facial muscles in false, or even half-hearted, smiles involved only muscles of the mouth. But "the sweet emotions of the soul," he said, activate the pars lateralis muscle around the eyes.
22 Detecting Emotion Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. A fake smile may continue for more than 4-5 seconds while a genuine smile will have faded by then. Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine? Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco
Ekman: Universal expressions of emotions: Fore People Many members of this group experienced little or no contact with modern culture Facial expressions were limited to their own people due to the fact they have never been in contact with a westerner Never saw any movies, did not speak English, & only lived in their settlement Can conclude that identifying facial expressions are hardwired biologically
29 Detecting Emotion Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face (Fox et al, 2000).
Figure 9.16 Cross-cultural comparisons of people’s ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions
Ekman: Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial feedback hypothesis - theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion.
32 The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures. Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow. Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/ The New York Times Pictures
39 Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior Women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men. When shown sad, happy, & scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men. Introverts better than extroverts Emotional contagion: – Automatically imitate other’s facial expressions, gestures, & postures, – We come to feel as others do as well as look the same way.
Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior Empathy – You identify with others and imagine what it must be like to walk in their shoes – Females are more likely to express empathy Sympathy – Perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another human being Empathy refers to the understanding and sharing of a specific emotional state with another person. Sympathy does not require the sharing of the same emotional state. Instead, sympathy is a concern for the well-being of another.
41 Cultural & Gender Differences 1.Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music. 2.Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims. 3.The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior (individualistic) than in cultures that do promote group behavior (collectivist). Wolfgang Kaehler
42 Expressed Emotion Emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of voice. Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal?
Expression of emotions Joy Left frontal lobe Positive emotions – Left hemi positive personalities upbeat, alert, enthusiastic Disgust Right prefrontal cortex Negative emotions – Right hemi – Depression prone
Looking Glass Self We use others as a mirror for perceiving ourselves. Who provided the most memorable reflected appraisals in your life— parents, teachers, classmates, friends? Which of these appraisals was the most positive? How have they served to threaten or boost your sense of self- esteem? Do you have any personal traits, abilities, or physical characteristics that have been socially distinctive? Did you like or dislike being distinctive?
46 Analyzing Emotion Analysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
47 Causes of Anger 1.People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable. 2.People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
48 Catharsis Hypothesis Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.” Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
49 Happiness People who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.
50 Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others. Altruism
51 Subjective Well-Being Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
52 Emotional Ups and Downs Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.
53 Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt. Courtesy of Anna Putt
54 Wealth and Well-being 1.In affluent societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs. 2.People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries. 3.A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy. However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life.
55 Does Money Buy Happiness? Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
56 Happiness & Satisfaction Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction) measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
57 Happiness & Prior Experience Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels. “Satisfaction has a short half-life” (Ryan, 1999).
58 Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivation is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with. The Law of Diminishing Returns states that the more we experience something, the less effect it has on us. Happiness & Others’ Attainments
59 Predictors of Happiness Why are some people generally more happy than others?