Presentation on theme: "Elements of Emotion Emotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by : physical arousal = physiological arousal Expressive behavior: reveals."— Presentation transcript:
1 Elements of EmotionEmotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by :physical arousal = physiological arousalExpressive behavior: reveals the emotion to outside worldConsciously experienced thoughts: inner awareness of feelingsDisplay rules - learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.control or display?With these rules, it doesn’t matter what you’re really feeling, you just have to show the right emotions. For example, when I teach, I don’t mind knowing that some of the students are bored out of their skulls, but I don’t want them showing it with loud yawns and constant eye-rolling.Japanese men more likely than American men to mask negative expressions with a smile.
3 Common Sense tells us…a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal.
4 James-Lange Theory of Emotion FIRST…physiological reaction, THEN…labeling of an emotion.different physiological states correspond to different experiences of emotion.feel sad because you cryfeel angry because you strikefeel happy because you smileSupport: Neck-level spinal cord injuries…reduce intensity of emotions
5 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Challenged JL since similar patterns of physiological activity associated with diff emotional states. (ex. anger & fear)NOT cause…effectphysiological reaction & the emotion occur at the same time.Cerebral cortex = subjective awareness of emotion…Sympathetic nervous system = physiological arousalPeople can experience physiological arousal without experiencing emotion, such as when they have been running. (The racing heart in this case is not an indication of fear.)Physiological reactions happen too slowly to cause experiences of emotion, which occur very rapidly. For example, when someone is in a dark alley alone, a sudden sound usually provokes an immediate experience of fear, while the physical“symptoms” of fear generally follow that feeling.People can experience very different emotions even when they have the same pattern of physiological arousal. For example, a person may have a racing heart and rapid breathing both when he is angry and when he is afraid.
6 Schachter and Singer’s Study of Emotion Emotion results from physiological arousal plus a cognitive label.Two-FACTOR: 2 ingredientsCognitive label: based on perceptions, memories, interpretationExplains arousal in emotional termsPhysical arousal fuels emotionCognition channels itIf a person finds herself near an angry mob of people when she is physiologically aroused, she might label that arousal “anger.” On the other hand, if she experiences the same pattern of physiological arousal at a music concert, she might label the arousal “excitement*Schachter and Singer agree with the James-Lange theory that people infer emotions when they experience physiological arousal. But they also agree with the Cannon-Bard theory that the same pattern of physiological arousal can give rise to different emotions.
7 Spillover EffectTendency of one person's emotion to affect how other people around them feel.Emotional VolatilityFor example, the teacher received a phone call that his wife was pregnant with a much-awaited baby.He goes into class happy and excited, & although he doesn't tell his class about the good news, his good mood rubs off on his students & they feel happy as well.Experiment: injected with adrenalineAn emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousalSame physical arousalExposed to “angry” man, interpreted physical arousal as angerexposed to “happy” man interpreted arousal as happiness
8 Romeo and Juliet Effect Misattribution of emotions~assign arousal to passionate love instead of anger from lack of freedomTendency for parental opposition to a relationship to intensify the romantic feelings of those in the relationship.The effect involves an increased commitment to persevere in the midst of parental opposition & interference.
9 Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron (In support of 2 Factor Theory) Male subjects were asked to meet an attractive female interviewer in the middle of one of two bridges.safe-looking bridge vs. dangerous (high & narrow).An attractive female researcher interviewed the male passers-by in the middle of the two bridges.She gave them her telephone number in case they wanted to ask about the results.They were then more likely to call her back, looking for a date.Men on the less safe-looking bridge were more aroused by the height of the bridge, and were likely to confuse their feelings for being 'lovestruck'.
10 Cognitive Mediational Theory of Emotion Cognitive appraisal of a stimulus determines your emotional response to it, physiological arousal follows the cognitive appraisal.both the physical arousal & the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environmentmust occur before the emotion is experienced.stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response & an emotional reaction.Dual processing: The brain gets a message that causes the experience of emotion at the same time that the autonomic nervous system gets a message that causes physiological arousal.Equipped?
12 Theories of Emotion Opponent Process Our emotions tend to trigger opposing emotions. Then there is balance.A way to maintain a steady state—homeostasisAs experiences are repeated wide swings in emotion are lessened, and things become more manageable!Costs of pleasure & the benefits of painExamples:You almost get into a car accident—you are afraid—once it’s over you feel reliefYou yell at your boyfriend and are angry; later to feel guilty and you apologizePost partum depressionPost concert depressionAfter the holidays
14 Duchenne's investigations mapping the muscles of the face
15 The Old Man "The Mechanisms of Human Facial Expression", (published in French 1862)experimentation in the perception and communication of human facial affect.
16 Duchenne's principal photographic subject "The Old Man“Duchenne's principal photographic subjectafflicted with almost total facial anesthesia.ideal subject for this investigation,stimulating electrodes used were ‘certainly somewhat uncomfortable, if not actually painful’.
17 ‘Electrization apparatuses’ electrical stimulation served as the diagnostic test in localization."faradism," the application of electricity to the skin for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.stimulate the nerves and muscles of patients.map the muscles of the body and note their functions
18 Duchenne electrically stimulates the musculature of the face of an actress of the French Comedy with the purpose of modifying emotions expressed by her face.
19 mapped 100 facial muscles in 1862. false, or even half-hearted, smiles involved only muscles of the mouth.But "the sweet emotions of the soul," he said, activate the pars lateralis muscle around the eyes.
22 Detecting EmotionHard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotions you may be trying to conceal. A fake smile may continue for more than 4-5 seconds while a genuine smile will have faded by then.Unique individuals within cultures acquire differences affecting displays of emotions emphasized by one's status, role, and diverse behaviors.Ekman’s (1971) neuro-cultural theory of facial expression of affectinnate neural links between emotional states and specific facial musclessocial learningoverlay of cultural/social learning can intervene between a felt and expressed emotionthe individual comes to learn a set of display rules (personal, situational, and cultural norms) that govern the presence and form of facial expressionsdisplay rules involves knowledge about the do’s and don’ts of expressing particular feelings in particular social contexts as well as the motivation and ability to control one’s own behavior in accordance with that knowledge.Simulation -- acting like you feel an emotion when no such emotion is present.Examples:1) Smiling with out experiencing happiness.2) Expressing guilt when you have not remorse.3) Showing surprise when you fully expected an event to occur.Inhibition: (Neutralization) -- giving the impression of having no feelings when one truly experiences emotion. Reverse of simulation.1) Keeping a straight face when something strikes one as funny.2) Hiding attraction to a third party when one’s significant other is present.3) Suppressing anger at one’s boss.Intensification -- giving the appearance of having stronger feelings than one actually has.1) Showing more grief at a funeral than one actually feels.2) Laughing heartily at your boss’s joke when you barely think it is funny.3) Communicating love to a distant relative for whom one only feels slight affection.Deintensification – giving the appearance of experiencing an emotion with less intensity than one actually is feeling. Similar to inhibition except with inhibition you show no emotion and with deintensification you show emotion but to a lesser degree.1) Children raising their voices slightly rather than yelling when angry.2) Teens trying to act cool by smiling instead of laughing at a very humorous joke.Masking -- communicating an emotion that is entirely different than the one a person is experiencing. This type of display rules occurs later in a person’s developmental cycle because it is easier to moderate an emotion (ex. Acting less angry than you actually feel) than it is to express an emotion entirely different than you feel (ex. Acting happy when you’re really upset).1) Looking brave when you are afraid.2) Looking confident when you are anxious.3) Looking humble when you are proud.Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San FranciscoWhich of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?
24 Ekman: Universal expressions of emotions: Fore People Many members of this group experienced little or no contact with modern cultureFacial expressions were limited to their own people due to the fact they have never been in contact with a westernerNever saw any movies, did not speak English, & only lived in their settlementCan conclude that identifying facial expressions are hardwired biologically
29 Detecting EmotionMost of us are good at deciphering emotions through nonverbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face (Fox et al, 2000).Classroom Exercise: Fear of Negative Evaluation ScaleThe text notes that when we feel included, accepted, and loved by those who are important to us, our self-esteem is high. Thus, much of our social behavior is aimed at increasing our social acceptance and inclusion. The complement is that we fear a loss of social approval. Handout 8A–13 is the Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) Scale designed by David Watson and Ronald Friend. Its use provides a helpful introduction to the text discussion of how we act to increase social acceptance and to avoid social disapproval. In scoring, students should assign one point for “True” answers to statements 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 28, 29, and 30. They should assign one point for “False” answers to the remaining 13 items. They should then calculate their score, which can range from 0 to 30, with higher scores reflecting greater fear of negative evaluation. For a sample of 297 college students, the authors obtained mean scores of and for males and females, respectively.Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448–457.
30 Figure Cross-cultural comparisons of people’s ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions
31 Ekman: Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial feedback hypothesis - theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion.Botox injections may be designed to reduce wrinkles but they also may leave you feeling blue.Cosmetic injections of botox for crows' feet around the eyes may cause feelings of depression, according to a British researcher. Why? Because these injections impact the strength of the eye muscles, which are essential in the face's overall formation of a smile.The small study, led by Dr. Michael Lewis of the School of Psychology, Cardiff, Wales, involved 25 people who had received Botox for wrinkles and examined how their facial expressions produce, as well as reflect, emotions because they reinforce them.Lewis said it all boils down to this: people smile when they are happy and smiling can make a person happy."Treatment with drugs like Botox prevents the patient from being able to make a particular expression," he said. "The new finding being reported [this week] concerns the impact of treatments for crows’ feet. The muscles around the eyes are used when forming a real smile and so it was predicted that treatment of the muscles that cause these will reduce the strength of a smile."With the help of a questionnaire, Lewis found that those people who had a harder time smiling reported greater feelings of depression.Previous research has found that when people smile -- even if it's a fake smile -- they actually feel less stress and happier in general
32 The Effects of Facial Expression If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowingbrows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.Preview Question 7: Do our facial expressions influence our feelings?Courtesy of Louis Schake/ Michael Kausman/The New York Times PicturesAttaching two golf tees to the face and making their tips touch causes the brow to furrow.
39 Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior Women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men. When shown sad, happy, & scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men.Introverts better than extrovertsEmotional contagion:Automatically imitate other’s facial expressions, gestures, & postures,We come to feel as others do as well as look the same way.
40 Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior EmpathyYou identify with others and imagine what it must be like to walk in their shoesFemales are more likely to express empathySympathyPerception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another human beingEmpathy refers to the understanding and sharing of a specific emotional state with another person. Sympathy does not require the sharing of the same emotional state. Instead, sympathy is a concern for the well-being of another.
41 Cultural & Gender Differences Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior (individualistic) than in cultures that do promote group behavior (collectivist).Wolfgang Kaehler
42 Expressed EmotionEmotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of voice. Is this nonverbal language of emotion universal?Preview Question 5: How do we communicate nonverbally?
43 Expression of emotions JoyDisgustLeft frontal lobePositive emotions – Left hemipositive personalitiesupbeat, alert, enthusiasticRight prefrontal cortexNegative emotions – Right hemiDepression prone
45 Looking Glass Self We use others as a mirror for perceiving ourselves. Who provided the most memorable reflected appraisals in your life—parents, teachers, classmates, friends?Which of these appraisals was the most positive?How have they served to threaten or boost your sense of self-esteem?Do you have any personal traits, abilities, or physical characteristics that have been socially distinctive?Did you like or dislike being distinctive?Feature Film: The Mirror Has Two Faces and the Looking-Glass SelfThe text notes that our self-esteem is a gauge of how valued and accepted we feel. We see ourselves reflected in others’ appraisals. Sociologist Charles Cooley used the concept of the “looking-glass self ” to describe how we use others as a mirror for perceiving ourselves.You can introduce this important topic with a three-minute clip from the feature film The Mirror Has Two Faces. Eighty-six minutes into the film the central character, Rose Morgan (played by Barbra Streisand), leaves her husband, returns to her childhood home late at night, and has a poignant exchange with her mother. Struggling with her self-concept because of a recent blow to her self-esteem, she asks, “When I was a baby, did you think I was pretty?” When her mother avoids answering the question, she reflects on how as a child she experienced the pain of her mother’s negative evaluations. Finally, she asks her mother, who at one time had been very beautiful, “What was it like to have others admire you?” Now her mother’s response is immediate and straightforward: “It was wonderful.” After showing this clip, you might have students reflect on the following questions in small groups:
46 Analyzing EmotionAnalysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
47 Causes of AngerPeople generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
48 Catharsis HypothesisVenting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming.
49 Happiness People who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.Preview Question 10: What are the causes and consequences of happiness?
50 Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.Altruism
51 Subjective Well-Being Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
52 Emotional Ups and Downs Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.
53 Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance.Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt.Courtesy of Anna Putt
54 Wealth and Well-beingIn affluent societies, people with more money are happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.People in rich countries are happier than people in poor countries.A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy.However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life.
55 Does Money Buy Happiness? Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
56 Happiness & Satisfaction Subjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction) measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico and Mexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
57 Happiness & Prior Experience Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels. “Satisfaction has a short half-life” (Ryan, 1999).
58 Happiness & Others’ Attainments Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivation is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.The Law of Diminishing Returns states that the more we experience something, the less effect it has on us.
59 Predictors of Happiness Why are some people generally more happy than others?