Presentation on theme: "Prevention of Foodborne Illness"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prevention of Foodborne Illness Food Safety TrainingPrevention of Foodborne IllnessKnox County Health DepartmentAndrea Woodard
2 Foodborne Illness Every Year: Roughly 1 in 6 Americans gets sick (or 48 million people)128,000 are hospitalized3,000 die of foodborne spread diseasesWe can reduce these numbers by emphasizing control of risk factors.
3 Foodborne IllnessFoodborne Illness Costs the U.S. an estimated $152 Billion AnnuallyWhat would a foodborne outbreak involving your establishment mean for you?Not only lost revenue but potentially a liability lawsuit.
4 FOODBORNE ILLNESS RISK FACTORS Improper hot/cold holding, Time in lieu of Temperature, and cooling of potentially hazardous foodsImproper cooking temperatures of potentially hazardous foodsDirty and/or contaminated utensils and equipmentPoor employee health and hygieneFood from unsafe sourcesMention these points while discussing slide:Are known to contribute the most to Foodborne illness and Foodborne illness outbreaks.FBI potential can be reduced and/or eliminated by careful control over Risk Factors
5 Potentially Hazardous Foods Foods that promote the growth of harmful bacteriaMeat, Fish, Poultry, SeafoodEggs, Dairy ProductsCooked VegetablesCooked rice, beans, pasta, and potatoesTofuSprouts (Alfalfa and Bean)Cut melonsGarlic or herbs bottled in oilSliced TomatoesCut Leafy GreensAs science develops, new PHFs are identified.As of July 1, 2015
6 Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & Cooling Hot foods must stay HOT at 135°F or above**Unless using Time as a Public Health Control (TILT)The purpose of holding potentially hazardous foods at proper temperatures is to minimize the growth of any pathogenic bacteria that may be present in the food.These temperatures are based on the requirements of our current rules.If we adopt the food code the hot-holding temperature will be changed to 135 ˚ F.Potentially hazardous foods that are going to be held at cold temperatures (i.e. refrigerated) must be held at a temperature of 41°F or below.It is important that the temperature of the food itself be 41°F or below at all times. Foods in a cooler that read 40°F in the morning before the facility opens may be well above 41°F during a lunch rush with the cooler door constantly opening and closing.Potentially hazardous foods that are going to be held at hot temperatures must be held at a temperature of 140°F or above.
7 Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & Cooling Cold foods must stay COLD at 41°F or below*The purpose of holding potentially hazardous foods at proper temperatures is to minimize the growth of any pathogenic bacteria that may be present in the food.These temperatures are based on the requirements of our current rules.If we adopt the food code the hot-holding temperature will be changed to 135 ˚ F.Potentially hazardous foods that are going to be held at cold temperatures (i.e. refrigerated) must be held at a temperature of 41°F or below.It is important that the temperature of the food itself be 41°F or below at all times. Foods in a cooler that read 40°F in the morning before the facility opens may be well above 41°F during a lunch rush with the cooler door constantly opening and closing.Potentially hazardous foods that are going to be held at hot temperatures must be held at a temperature of 140°F or above.*Unless using Time as a Public Health Control (TILT)
8 Time As A Public Health Control (TILT) Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & CoolingTime As A Public Health Control (TILT)Time (instead of temperature) may be used as a public health control IF:Written procedures prepared in advance that specify which foods are using TILTFood is marked to indicate the time that food is taken out of temperature controlFood is served within four hours or DISCARDED after four hours
9 Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & Cooling Test Your Knowledge:How long should it take to cool a large pan of chili to 41° F or less?Six hours or lessIncreased from four hours to six hours total cooling time
10 Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & Cooling Rapid cooling is essential to prevent bacterial growth that could cause foodborne illnessTime/Temperature Control for Safety (TCS) food must be cooled to 41° F or less within 6 hoursWhen cooling hot foods for later use, they must be rapidly cooled.
11 Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & Cooling Proper Cooling Method (two stages)Stage 1Reduce the temperature to 70ºF or less within two hoursStage 2Reduce the temperature from 70ºF to 41ºF or less within an additional four hour periodTotal cooling time must not exceed 6 hours
12 Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & Cooling What are some strategies for safe cooling of large quantities of food, such as turkeys or five gallons of chili?Reduce the volume using shallow pansType of container (metal vs. plastic)Cut large portions of meat into smaller piecesIce baths, ice wandsIce as an ingredient(8.5 pounds of ice = 1 gallon water)
14 Safe Holding/Cooling Review Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & CoolingSafe Holding/Cooling ReviewWhat is the Danger Zone?41°F - 135°FWhy is Rapid Cooling important?Reduces the potential for bacterial growthWhat are some effective methods for cooling foods?Shallow pansSmaller portionsIce bathIce wandUse of metal pans
15 How Can You be Sure Foods are Cooled Within Six Hours? Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & CoolingHow Can You be Sure Foods are Cooled Within Six Hours?Check the temperature of the food with a calibrated thermometer:After two hours of cooling (must be 70° F)After six total hours of cooling (must be 41° F or less)**Temperature Logs Recommended**
16 How to Calibrate a Food Thermometer Risk Factor 1 Improper Holding & CoolingHow to Calibrate a Food Thermometer
17 Risk Factor 2 Improper Cooking Temperatures Cooking is the only food preparation step that will actually kill bacteriaVerify proper cook temp by using a calibrated thermometer**Temperature Logs Recommended**Cooking food to the proper temperatures is extremely important because many raw meats have pathogenic bacteria on them naturally, such as salmonella on raw chicken.Proper holding temperatures slow down reproduction,freezing food makes bacteria go dormant,but proper cooking temperatures will kill bacteria that are in the food.How do you calibrate your thermometer?
18 Risk Factor 2 Improper Cooking Temperatures Which Foods Must Be Cooked to 165° F for 15 seconds?PoultryStuffed Foods or StuffingCasserolesRaw animal foods cooked in a microwaveReheated Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food (TCS)Be sure to have a calibrated thermometer available. Having more than one is not a bad idea.
19 Risk Factor 2 Improper Cooking Temperatures Which Foods Must Be Cooked to 155° F for 15 seconds?HamburgerSausageInjected meatsEggs (for hot holding)
20 Risk Factor 2 Improper Cooking Temperatures Which Foods Must Be Cooked to 145 degrees for 15 seconds?Eggs (for Immediate Service)FishShrimpPorkCooking Temperature of Pork lowered from 155F to 145F(Does not apply to sausage)
21 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment Prevention of Cross Contamination:Wash hands after handling raw meatWash, Rinse, Sanitize ALL food contact surfaces that touch raw meatPrepare raw meat in an area away from other foodsUse separate cutting board for raw meatStore raw meat below other foods in refrigeratorStore meat with highest cooking temp (chicken) below meat with lower cook temp (fish)Happens when bacteria from raw foods get onto other foodsHow can it be prevented *Read Slide*
22 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment Food Contact Surfaces must always be:WashedRinsedSanitizedBetween raw and ready to eat foods, when dirty or contaminated, or at least every four hours if used continuouslyCleaning and Sanitizing are not the sameCleaning: uses soap and waterSanitizing: uses chemicals or heat to kill bacteria by reducing them to safe levels
23 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment SanitizationChemicalChlorine Solution:ppm –immersion for at least 30 secondsQuaternary Ammonia (QA) Solutionfollow manufacturer instructionsSanitizing by hot waterTemperature of the water 171°FTemperature on the dish 160 °F30 second contact timeMethods of Sanitizing *Read Slide*
24 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment Chemical Test Kits
25 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment Raw food being improperly thawed and stored*Discuss pictures, address the wrong and what they should do instead.*Cutting board and knife contaminated by raw chicken
26 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment RTE foods contaminated by raw chicken (cutting board & knife)*Discuss pictures, address the wrong and what they should do instead.*Raw food over veggies
27 Risk Factor 3 Contaminated Food, Utensils, and Equipment Proper refrigerated storage for RAW meats and Ready to Eat Foods to prevent Cross Contamination*Read Slide*Discuss diagram and mention that the chart is based on cooking temp. The food with the highest cooking temp is on the bottom. This is a good way to remember proper refrigerated storage.
28 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Proper HandwashingEmployee Illness PolicyNo Bare Hand Contact with Ready to Eat Foods
29 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Food workers, even if they look and feel healthy, may spread viruses and bacteriaGOOD Personal hygiene keeps harmful germs from getting on foodWASH Hands FrequentlyUse a barrier (gloves or utensils) when handling ready to eat foods.It is possible for a food worker to transfer their illness to customers via the food.
30 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene HandwashingWho?What?When?Where?How?*Read Slide*
31 Risk Factor 4- Poor Personal Health & Hygiene **How to Wash Hands PROPERLY….Step 1: Get your hands wet so the soap will work.Step 2: Apply Soap and Scrub under nails between fingers and up to the lower arm. Scrub secs.Step 3: Rinse hands to send the soap suds and bacteria down the drain.Elaborate on proper procedure *Read Slide*Step 4: Dry hands completely with a paper towel. Scrubbing with the towel helps remove more bacteria and viruses.**Courtesy of Washington State Food and Beverage Worker’s Manual, Retrieved from
32 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene When to Wash:After using the toiletAfter handling raw meat, fish, or poultryAfter handling garbage or dirty dishesAfter taking a break, eating, or smokingPoints to make:Hand washing rids hands of the biological hazards that cause foodborne illnessJust because hands look clean doesn’t mean they are free of viruses and bacteria*Read Slide*
33 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Upon entering the kitchenAfter sneezing, coughing, or blowing noseAfter handling animals or using chemicalsAfter touching clothingBefore putting on new glovesWhen changing tasks
34 Is There Anything Wrong With This Scenario? Mary works for a catering company. A few days ago she was working a catering event, serving hot food on the line. She did not use gloves, but used spoons and tongs to serve the food.The manager noticed that Mary made multiple trips to the bathroom during her four hour shift.The restroom had soap, separate hot and cold water, and a working hot air dryer but no paper towels. Each time Mary used the restroom, she washed her hands quickly and dried them on her apron.Mary didn’t use gloves but used utensils. That is OK.The manager should have asked Mary if she was ill with vomiting or diarrhea. That is NOT OK.Poor handwashing and inadequate supplies is NOT OK.
35 Is There Anything Wrong With This Scenario? Phil works as a “Sandwich Artist” at a local sandwich shop. Before the store opens, he cleans the entire area and sets up the prep line.The store opens and the first customer orders a toasted roast beef sub. Phil washes his hands and puts on a clean pair of gloves and begins to prepare the sandwich. He slices the bread and adds the meat and cheese and places the sandwich in the oven. When it is toasted, he adds lettuce, tomatoes, and dressing per the customer’s request and cuts the sandwich in half.Then another employee rings up the order and takes that customer’s money while Phil makes the next customer’s sandwich.OKGloves were not contaminated by touching oven door because it was clean.This is OK, because Phil did not change jobs, he can continue working with the same pair of gloves.
36 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene No Bare Hand Contact with Ready to Eat FoodsViolations involving bare hand contact with ready to eat foods will be taken beginning July 1, 2015.
37 What type of foods are considered Ready-to-Eat? Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & HygieneWhat type of foods are considered Ready-to-Eat?Washed fruits and vegetables served rawSandwich meats and cheeseBread, toast, rolls and baked goodsGarnishes such as lettuce, parsley, lemon wedges, picklesIce for consumptionAny food that has been thoroughly cooked and is ready to eat
38 Bare Hand Contact with Ready to Eat Foods Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & HygieneBare Hand Contact with Ready to Eat FoodsShould be minimized whenever possible with Ready to Eat FoodsWill be marked as a violation beginning July 1, 2015Use Tongs, Deli Paper, or GlovesNo BHC prevents the spread of Hepatitis A and NorovirusStress the importance of :Develop new habits now rather than later --- due to number of outbreaks associated with BHC, there is a possibility TN will implement changes to its rules to include this policy in the future. So develop new practices now, if possible, rather than later. It protects you and the public.
39 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Proper GLOVE use:Wash hands before putting on glovesChange gloves that are damagedChange gloves that might be contaminated (soiled)Never wash or reuse glovesChange gloves between working w/raw meat and ready to eat foodsDiscard / Dispose gloves after useWash hands after taking gloves offRemember, a number of methods can be used to prevent BHC; like deli paper or tongs, not just gloves.But, if your business uses gloves to prevent BHC, then know these steps for proper glove use.
40 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Employee Illness PolicyFood Workers Must Report the following symptoms to the Person In Charge (PIC):DiarrheaVomitingJaundiceSore throat w/ feverInfected lesion on hands or arms*Read Slide*
41 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Food Workers MAY NOT work with food if diagnosed with infections that can spread through food:SalmonellaShigellaE. ColiHepatitis ANorovirus
42 FDA’s guidance document for Employee Health. Can be found at the webpage link below.
43 Risk Factor 4 Poor Personal Health & Hygiene Food workers MAY NOT eat, drink, or use any type of tobacco in Food Prep Areas(approved drink cup, appropriately stored is allowed)Hair restrainedFingernails trimmedNo Jewelry(wedding band is allowed)Mention that there are exceptions to these rulesThe exceptions are:Exception 1: Food workers may drink from a covered container with a straw. The drink must be stored so that it cannot spill onto food or food contact surfaces.Exception 2: Wedding Ring if covered w/a glove during food prep
44 Risk Factor 5 Food From Unsafe Sources All food served to customers must come from sources that comply with LAW.*Read slide*
45 Food in Sound Condition Risk Factor 5 Food From Unsafe SourcesFood in Sound ConditionWhen receiving food, check for the following:SpoilageOpened, rusty, or severely damaged packaged or canned foodsProper Temp—Received frozen shall be frozen, cold foods shall be 41°F or belowDo NOT accept if any there is any evidence of temperature abuse
47 Risk Factor 5 Food From Unsafe Sources Shellfish (oysters, clams, mussels)Must be from sources that are listed in the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers (ICSS) list.Identification tags attached to the containerMust keep shellfish tags for 90 days
48 Risk Factor 5 Food From Unsafe Sources Shellfish Tags
49 OTHER FOOD SAFETY CONCERNS Wastewater LeaksCross Connection and BackflowPest ControlToxic Items Properly Stored, Labeled, & UsedImminent Health HazardsIncapable of keeping potentially hazardous foods in temperatureNo way to sanitize (ie: no bleach/QUAT on site)Complete lack of water or electricitySewage back up
50 REVIEW 2. Wash your hands often and well 1. Only work when you are healthy2. Wash your hands often and well3. Don’t touch RTE food with bare hands4. Keep food HOT or COLD, or use Time as a Public Health Control5. Cook food to proper temperatures6. Cool hot food within six hours7. Keep raw meat away from ready to eat foods8. Keep food preparation areas and utensils clean and sanitized9. Wash, Rinse, Sanitize, Air Dry - all utensils,preparation areas, plates, pots, pans, etc.To sum up the presentation, each person should walk away knowing these 10 points:*Read Slide*
51 Changes to the TN Food Rules 2009 FDA Food CodeImplement on July 1, 2015All of the following slides will discuss the changes in the rules. These will be implemented on July 1, 2015.
52 Manager Certification and Demonstration of Knowledge The Person In Charge (PIC) will be required to demonstrate appropriate food safety knowledge by:Manager Certification, orHaving an inspection with no priority item violations, orAnswering food safety questions.
53 Manager Certification https://www.ansica.org/wwwversion2/outside/ALLdirectoryLi sting.asp?menuID=8&prgID=8&status=4American National Standards Institute’s website listing accredited personnel certification programs utilizing the Conference for Food Protection Standards:
55 Date-Marking What is Date Marking and why is it important? Date marking is a means to control the growth of Listeria, a bacteria that grows at refrigeration temperaturesDate marking is a system that identifies how old foods are and when those foods should be discarded before these bacteria can cause foodborne illness
56 Date-MarkingRefrigerated, ready to eat, TCS foods prepared and held in a food establishment more than 24 hours shall be date-marked to indicate when the food must be sold, consumed, or discarded.Maximum of seven (7) days.
57 Consumer AdvisoryWill be required if you serve or offer for sale raw or undercooked meat, such as:SteakHamburgersSushiCevicheEggsPorkIf raw animal foods are served or offered for sale raw or undercooked a consumer advisory will be required
58 Consumer AdvisoryA consumer advisory is written notification that foods are offered or served raw or undercooked and includes:DisclosureDescription of food, example “Hamburger (can be cooked to order)Identifying such foods with and asterisk to a footnote that states that the items are served raw or undercooked.ReminderThe footnote states one of the following:Written information available upon request, orConsuming raw or undercooked meats may increase your risk of foodborne illness, especially if you have certain medical conditions.
59 Consumer Advisory Consumer advisory can be accomplished by utilizing: reminder statements on the menuplacardtable tenta brochure or pamphlet. The statement would be placed in another location on the menu, but reference the asterisked items.
61 No Bare Hand Contact with RTE Food service workers must use “suitable” utensils when handling ready to eat foods. Examples of suitable utensils include the following:Deli tissueSpatulasTongsForksOther serving utensilsSingle Use gloves
62 Parasite DestructionRaw or partially cooked fish* (sushi fish) shall be:Frozen at -4°F for 7 days, orFrozen and stored at -31°F for 15 hours*Some species are exempt from this requirement:Molluscan shellfishTuna of the species allalunga, albacares, atlanticus, maccoyii, obesus, or thynnus, orAqua cultured Fish, such as salmon if raised in open water and fed formulated pellet feed.
63 Specialized Processing Methods *Will Require a HACCP plan*Smoking for preservationCuring foodUsing food additives, such as vinegar for preservation or to render the food non TCSReduced Oxygen PackagingOperating a molluscan shellfish life-support system display tankSprouting seeds or beans
64 Changes to the Rules The changes that we have discussed: Manager Certification/Demonstration of KnowledgeDate-MarkingConsumer AdvisoryNo Bare Hand Contact with RTEParasite DestructionSpecialized ProcessesAre part of the updated food service law that will take effect on July 1, 2015
65 Questions?Please contact your local environmental health specialist if you have any questions.Contact information:Knox County Health Department140 Dameron AvenueKnoxville, TN 37917More information, training materials, and fact sheets will be available soon at the division’s webpage: