Presentation on theme: "Unit 2-Colonial America Lesson 8: Life in the Colonies."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2-Colonial America Lesson 8: Life in the Colonies
Review England had settled 13 colonies in North America. There were three different regions of colonies: New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies. Each colony was founded for different reasons, such as religion or wealth. Although the colonies were British, there were many different cultures present.
Separate Colonies The thirteen English colonies were all very different from one another in religion, manners, characters, political and financial interests, etc. Very few people could see a future where all thirteen colonies would join in a union because of their differences. There was conflict between them.
Population of the Colonies The population in 1700 was about 250,000 people, but the colonies continued to grow to an estimated population of around 2.5 million by the 1770s. African-American population during that time period increased from about 28,000 to more than 500,000.
Reasons for Population Growth Immigration was the main reason for the large population growth. Another reason for growth was due the fact that women usually married young and tended to have large families. The thirteen colonies were a healthy place to live, especially in the New England Colonies.
Life in the New England Colonies Most New Englanders lived in well- organized towns, where there would be a town center where most of the city happenings occurred, such as church and town meetings. Farmers tended to live in the town, but their farms were outside town limits.
Farming in New England Due to long winters and rocky soil, large farms were uncommon in New England. Most farmers in the region practiced subsistence farming. Due to smaller farms, farmers tended to rely on their own children for labor around the home and farm.
New England Commerce New England was also known for small businesses, that tended to set up stores in the town. Women who made products for their family, often made more than needed to sell or trade. Larger towns would attract skilled craftsman, such as blacksmiths, shoemakers, printers, etc.
Industry in New England An important industry in New England was shipbuilding, due to the large amounts of lumber in the forests. Another major industry was fishing. New Englanders would fish for cod, halibut, crabs, oysters, and lobster. Fishing is still a major business in the region today.
New England Trade New England became the center of the shipping trade. Ships would sail along the Atlantic coast, trading with the other colonies and the West Indies, or across the Atlantic to other parts of the world. The merchant ships followed many different trading routes.
Triangular Trade Some merchants followed trade routes that formed a triangle. They would trade for sugar and molasses from the South and West Indies, bring it to New England where it would be made into rum. They would take to West Africa and trade for enslaved Africans, which they used to buy the sugar and molasses.
Middle Passage The part of the triangular trade where enslaved Africans were sent across the Atlantic Ocean was called the Middle Passage. Was considered to be inhumane. The Africans were crowded into the depths of the ships, which was extremely warm with very little air or food.
Farming in the Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies had more fertile land and a slightly better climate than New England. They were able to farm on a larger scale, growing large amounts of cash crops, such as wheat, that could be sold in the colonies and in Europe.
Ports in Middle Colonies The farmers would send their cargoes of cash crops and livestock to New York City and Philadelphia for shipping. These two cities quickly became busy ports, with the largest populations in the colonies.
Middle Colonies Industry Industry in the Middle Colonies was very much the same as in New England, with home-made crafts being sold. Larger industries were lumbering, small amounts of manufacturing, and mining. Iron mills also became popular in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
Immigrants Almost 100,000 German immigrants settled in Pennsylvania. They became successful farmers, using farming methods from Europe. The German immigrants, as well as the other cultures already in the Middle Colonies, made this region more culturally diverse than New England.
Farming in the Southern Colonies Due to warm climates and rich soil, the Southern Colonies relied on farming to make a living, with very little industry. Due to the farming conditions, colonists in the South tended to have large farms, or plantations, of cash crops.
Tobacco Tobacco was the main cash crop in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Tobacco was difficult to grow and prepare for sale, but was in high demand in Europe, so farmers started to use enslaved Africans for labor. Due to a surplus of tobacco, prices fell, leading some farmers to start growing other crops like corn and wheat.
Rice Although tobacco was a big cash crop in South Carolina and Georgia, their main cash crop was rice. The low-lying wetlands were perfect conditions for growing rice. Due to the difficult work needed in rice fields, slavery became popular in this region.
Tidewater The tidewater is a region of flat, low- lying plains along the seacoast. This area of the Southern Colonies is where you could find the large farms, called plantations. A plantation tended to a be a small community with the fields surrounding the clusters of buildings.
Backcountry West of the tidewater was the backcountry, an area of hills and forest leading up to the Appalachian Mountains. Settlers in the backcountry tended to be new to the colonies looking for a new start. Backcountry settlers usually had small farms that they worked on by themselves or with their families, growing corn and tobacco.
Tidewater vs. Backcountry There were more backcountry farmers than tidewater plantation owners. Due to the plantation owners being wealthier, they had much influence on economic and political policies of the area.
Review Just as the three different regions of colonies were different culturally, their ways of life differed greatly as well. These differences caused many people to think that the thirteen colonies would never be able to unite, and if they did, that it would lead to great struggles, like a civil war.
Assignments Answer the four review questions for this lesson. On the Venn Diagram provided, compare and contrast life in the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies. You will have a Unit 2 test after you complete Lesson 10