Presentation on theme: "Context Clues A most important skill to master! The 6 types of Clues PAGERS= Mnemonics (Memory) Device P=punctuationA=antonym G=general sense E=example."— Presentation transcript:
Context Clues A most important skill to master!
The 6 types of Clues PAGERS= Mnemonics (Memory) Device P=punctuationA=antonym G=general sense E=example and definition R=roots, prefixes and suffixes S=synonym
Context= the words surrounding the unknown (unfamiliar) word or phrase in the reading selection.
Use the Context to help explain the meaning of the word!
The runner didn’t like the frigid weather as he was not wearing a coat, scarf or gloves! The runner didn’t like the frigid weather as he was not wearing a coat, scarf or gloves! Frigid?
The words surrounding an unknown word or phrase will give you clues to the meaning of the unknown word or phrase. Use those clues!
The police searched his house and found an arsenal of weapons including two rifles, a handgun, grenades and plastic explosives. Arsenal?
The stench of the dead fish was so bad we had to hold our noses! Stench?
The king had reigned over his kingdom for twenty five years. Reigned?
The proprietor of the wagon told us he had bought the business a year ago. Proprietor?
Roland was so miserly that he refused to give his sons spending money. Also, to save electricity, he insisted they study by the light of one lamp. Miserly?
Cheap, Thrifty, Frugal, Stingy!
Eluded? The thief had eluded the police by hiding in the grave yard. They could not find him!
There are 6 types of Context Clues: Punctuation Antonyms General Sense of the Passage Example and Definition Roots, prefixes and suffixes Synonyms
Nuptials (weddings) vary from culture to culture. Nuptials ??
Punctuation Parenthesis: The lair, ( habitat), of the wolf was underground. Comma, or________, He was bloviating, or lecturing, That is, ____ She was ready, that is, prepared for the test. Dashes – She was superflous – unnecessary to him.
Punctuation Watch for authors to use punctuation to give you the meaning of the word!
Jack was a mediocre, or average, student in all of his subjects. He never did more than what was required. Mediocre? Notice the, or, pattern?
Mario was apprehensive, or fearful, of the upcoming test. Apprehensive? (, or,) (, or,)
It is hard to believe that my millionaire cousin was once indigent, that is, so poor he lived on the streets. Indigent?, that is, poor, that is, poor
Clues:, or,, that is, parenthesisdashes
I had to delete a lot of information from my report on zoos because it was longer than my teacher wanted it to be. Delete?
Get rid of….. Remove…... Erase…..
2. Antonyms An Antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word.
Antonyms Antonyms are often signaled by words such as however, but, yet, on the other hand, and in contrast. in contrast.
Antonym Religions in America are not static; but changing, especially in this period of shifting values. Static? Changing
Antonym In formal communication, be sure to avoid obscure language. Clear language prevents misinterpretation. Obscure? Clear!
While houses and antiques often increase in value, most things such as cars and TV’s depreciate. Increase in Value? Depreciate
3. Example and definition Examples help suggest the meaning of an unknown word or definition.
Example The adverse effects of this drug, including dizziness, nausea, and headaches, have caused it to be withdrawn from the market. The adverse effects of this drug, including dizziness, nausea, and headaches, have caused it to be withdrawn from the market.
Adverse? Harmful or Bad
Examples Crustaceans, such as shrimp and lobsters, are often eaten in the east. Crustaceans? Crusty shelled seafood.
Examples In biology, we discussed such anomalies as creatures with two heads, or webbed toes. Anomalies? Two heads, Webbed toes strange, or unusual things.
Examples Since my grandfather retired, he has developed several new avocations. For instance, he now enjoys gardening and long- distance bike riding.
Examples A=outside of Voc=calling Avocation=Hobbies done outside of your calling or work. Examples=bike riding and gardening are hobbies.
General Sense of the Passage Common sense tells you the meaning of the unknown word or phrase. You figure it out!
General Sense of the Passage Michael didn’t want to tell Shankika the entire plot of the movie, so he just gave her the gist of the story. Gist?
Gist? Main idea
General Sense Keep your muddy boots off the sofa or you will sully it. Sully?
Make dirty or to soil the sofa.
While Irma’s house is decorated plainly, her clothing is very flamboyant! Flamboyant?
General Sense Despite complaints from parents, educators, and government officials, violence and sex on television goes on unabated.
Unabated? Not stopping Unable to be stopped Not changing
Today was a day of turmoil at work-the phones were constantly ringing, people were running back and forth, and several offices were being painted. Turmoil?
Synonym = A synonym is a word that means the same or almost the same as the unknown word.
All four individuals in the quartet wore red jackets! Synonym?
Synonym The doctor assuaged the patient with medicine to soothe the pain and she rested quietly. Assuage?Soothe!
Synonym Speaking in front of a class disconcerts Juan. Even answering questions embarrasses him. Disconcerts? Disconcerts? Embarrasses! Embarrasses!
Synonym The earthquake was a calamity! It created huge difficulties and distress for the victims! Calamity? Huge distress!
Synonyms can be swapped for the word they explain.
Managers should be careful not to have opponents work together; adversaries often do not cooperate well. Managers should be careful not to have adversaries work together; opponents often do not cooperate well.
What if there are no context clues? Keep reading! Guess at the meaning! Use a dictionary!
Questions? Let’s practice!
– For men only: – There are several gambits used to meet women, such as “What sign are you?” or “How do you like this place?” and “You remind me of someone.” Gambits?
Gambits? Gambits? Conversation starters….. Pick up lines…..
For women: While his physique is not important, his income is! I do not care if his body is well muscled as long as he brings home a good check each week.
Physique? Well built body, muscled body, Physical appearance
Many people have a fear of the number 13, or triskaidekaphobia. How did the trepidation come about over this number? Triskaidekaphobia? Trepidation?
Pinnace? The Sailors unloaded the pinnace from its hinges and lowered it into the water. They were afraid to go into the ocean in the pinnace but the captain forced them into it.
They climbed down into the pinnace and started to row away from the ship. They knew the whale out there waiting for them would swallow the small boat and themselves in one gulp.