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Preparing for an Included Life Functional Skills in HS Carol Quirk, Ed.D. Arizona TASH June 14, 2012
Why go to school?...to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living... IDEA 2004
Being Included is… Being THERE WITH same age peers WHERE they learn and socialize Having a sense of BELONGING Membership in the school community Having friends Learning Communication/Socialization skills Post-School employment skills
Young Adults with Significant Disabilities Current Work Status Prior Work History Family- Related Factors School- Related Factors Skill- Related Factors Student Demographic Factors How Do Young Adults with Significant Disabilities Fare? The Early Years After Exiting High School Carter, E. W., Austin, D., & Trainor, A. A. (in press). Predictors of postschool employment outcomes for young adults with severe disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies.
Young Adults with Significant Disabilities PAID Community Based JOBs Prior Work History 43% employed in jobs with other workers how have a disability For 21 hours/week or less Average pay = $ % employed
Food Filth Flowers Folding And SHREDDING!
Predictors of Employment Goal of attending a two or four year college 11% of students with ID had this goal 58% students with other disabilities had this goal Goal of paid community-based employment 33% of students with ID had the goal of sheltered employment 8% of students with other disabilities had goal of sheltered employment Grigal, Hart, & Migliore, 2011
Employment Outcomes for Youth with ID and/or ASD Carter, E. W., Trainor, A. A., Ditchman, N., Swedeen, B., & Owens, L. (2009). Evaluation of a multi- component intervention package to increase summer work experiences for transition-age youth with severe disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34, 1-12.
Employment Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities When youth spend two years in a post- secondary college experience 26% more likely to leave Vocational Rehabilitation with paid employment 73% higher weekly income Data Set: RSA 911 Migliore, A., Butterworth, J., & Hart, D Postsecondary Education and Employment Outcomes for Youth with Intellectual Disabilities. Fast Facts Series, No. 1. Boston, MA: Institute for Community Inclusion
OLD Definition of Functional Skills 1979“Functional Skills refer to the variety of skills that are frequently demanded in natural domestic, vocational, and community environments.” Brown, Branston, Hamre-Nietupski, Pumpian, Certo, & Gruenewald. (1979). A strategy for developing chronological age appropriate and functional curricular content for severely handicapped adolescents and adults. The Journal of special Education 13(1). 1989: “Functional/critical skills… include skills/activities that are required or expected of non- handicapped peers. These skills are essential to the student’s performance and participation in a variety of community environments. Falvey, M. (1989). Community-based curriculum: instructional strategies for students with severe handicaps. Baltimore: Brooks.
New Definition of Functional Skills 1998: “…skills such as communication, cooperation, problem solving, self-initiation, responsibility …have been shown to be more related to job stability than the ability to perform specific vocational tasks.” “… the academic and social benefits of inclusion rely on students being full-time members of general education classes and their school communities.” Jorgensen, C.M (1998). Restructuring high schools for ALL learners: Taking inclusion to the next level. Baltimore: Brooks.
Life Skills Collaboration Computer use Problem solving Communication
Functional College/Career Readiness Skills Communication competence (need access to AAC!) Academic content (especially literacy) Social skills Work behavior Knowledge of how to access supports
Criteria 1. Age-Appropriate 2. Required now to participate in school/work 3.Required as an adult for employment or home 4.Improves communication/social interactions 5.Promotes self-determination
Instead of: Consider: Follow a picture recipe Given written directions with picture cues, complete a task of up to 5 steps Science lab Social studies project Classroom job Book report
Instead of: Consider: Read 20 community safety words Recognize and respond to key printed words in context Curriculum vocabulary words Key words in math problems Signs and labels in the building
It’s not just about participation, it’s about OUTCOMES Inclusion Jobs High Expectations
Strengths decodes up to 2 nd grade computes single digits transitions to class independently Follows 1-2 step directions motivated to work Case Study-Keith
Interests The WEATHER COOKING BASEBALL GIRLS COMPUTER Preferences Predictability of routine and staff Female teachers Peer supports Social praise and ‘high fives’ Working on some tasks independently
Needs Support with: Reading Word problems Math (e.g., budgeting, money) Organization skills (often loses things) Initiating conversation Answering questions Making decisions Initiating an activity if not directed Case Study-Keith
IEP Matrix of Objectives English / Language Arts (A/B) Algebra (A/B) Earth Science (A) American Gov. (B) Health / P.E. Elective (A) Applied Nutrition Elective (B) Decoding / Phonics S will recognize CVC words and decode them appropriately. XXXXXX S will be able to identify word families (e.g., ou, oi, oy, ie, ea) and decode the words appropriately. XXX Reading Comprehension When given text or portion of the text, S will read to gain information as evidenced by identifying the main idea and supporting details. XXXXXX After reading a short story, S will correctly answer comprehension questions about the story. XXX Using internet and print material, S will research and discuss at least one career of interest. XXX Expressive Language Given a question, provide response within 20 seconds (with 100% accuracy with no more than 1 verbal prompt) XXXXXX When faced with an unfamiliar person or situation (substitute teacher, change in schedule, or does not understand directions) Keith will ask for assistance within 30 seconds with no more than 1 verbal prompt. XXXXXX
Written Language Expression When given a short sentence from dictations, S will write what he has heard and apply appropriate spelling and capitalization rules XXXX When given a topic or a writing prompt, S will write 4-5 related sentences and utilize appropriate spelling, capitalization, and punctuation rules XXXX When given a registration form (e.g. for a club or a sport), S will be able to write his personal information with 100% accuracy for 4 out of 5 trials XXXX IEP Matrix of Objectives English / Language Arts (A/B) Algebra (A/B) Earth Science (A) American Government (B) Health / P.E. Elective (A) Applied Nutrition Elective (B) Math Calculation When given a verbal and visual cue for the total amount for a purchase (e.g., lunch, drink, snack, or an item from the school store), S will use the ‘next dollar-up’ strategy to make purchases. XXX When given an item in need of measurement (e.g., during earth science lab, algebra, margins for written products in English), S will measure accurately in millimeters, centimeters, and inches. XX Given a set of addition and subtraction problems, with decimals to the hundredths place, S will correctly perform the calculations XX
Planning Supports: Information About the Class When:What students are expected to do: The teacher is lecturing Students are working in cooperative groups Students are doing individual seat work Sit quietly in seat Take notes Answer questions Perform assigned role Take turns Listen Respect opinions of others Work in assigned area Complete activity Ask for help if needed
Putting It All Together When: What students are expected to do: The teacher is lecturing Sit in seat Listen Take notes Answer questions Students are working in cooperative groups Perform assigned role Take turns Listen Respect opinions of others Students are doing individual seat work Work in assigned area Complete activity Ask for help if needed Supports: Pre-teaching of answer Partner to take notes Copy of notes / Highlighter Peer support to prompt answer Visual schedule of tasks Review of cooperative group rules prior to starting Pre-Teaching Peers to support participation Choice of area in which to work “Help” card What Keith will do: Sit in seat Listen Answer one question Perform one role (same over time) Wait for turn until a peer prompts him Listen Work in area Complete modified activity Use “help” card to request assistance
Keith’s Action Plan ActivityTo DoBy Whom? Whole Group/Lecture Highlight important points Seat back to middle (not in front) Prepare additional activity for long lecture Provide prompts as needed for questions Gen Educator, Special Educator, Para Small Group/Indepen dent Work Assign role Provide opportunities to write/copy Encourage modeling by peers Use books, drawing, and practice work Academic Content Preview lessons and make accommodations/modifications as needed Lunch Provide reminders to not continue talking /supervision to help with pacing Substitute Teacher Check on adult support when this happens; remember to provide reminders about the change in schedule if scheduled to be out Special Educator
9 th Grade Schedule Monday A Day Tuesday B-Day Wednesday A Day Thursday B-Day Friday A Day Applied Nutrition Health / P.E. Applied Nutrition Health / P.E.Applied Nutrition Essentials of Algebra Algebra-Essentials of Algebra AlgebraEssentials of Algebra Language Arts Reading Inter- vention Language Arts Reading Inter- vention Language Arts Earth Science American Govt. Earth Science American Govt. Earth Science
10 th Grade Schedule Monday A Day Tuesday B-Day Wednesday A Day Thursday B-Day Friday A Day BiologyWorld History BiologyWorld History Biology Skills Class Career Assess & S- Led IEP GeometrySkills Class Career Assess & S- Led IEP GeometrySkills Class Career Assess & S- Led IEP English Language Arts-CT Reading Interventi on English Language Arts-CT Reading Interventio n English Language Arts-CT Key- boarding Intro to Tech- nology KeyboardingIntro to Tech- nology Key- boarding
11 th Grade Schedule Monday A Day Tuesday B-Day Wednesday A Day Thursday B-Day Friday A Day PsyhologyReading Interven- tion PsychologyReading Interven- tion Psychology Applied Nutrition II Team Sports Applied Nutrition II Team Sports Applied Nutrition II Environ. Science U.S. History Environ. Science U.S. History Environ. Science Work experience Career Research and Develop. Work experience Career Research and Develop. Work experience
12 th Grade Schedule Monday A Day Tuesday B-Day Wednesday A Day Thursday B-Day Friday A Day Applied Nutrition-III Advanced Tech- nology Applied Nutrition-III Advanced Tech- nology Applied Nutrition-III English Language Arts-CT Reading Interven- tion English Language Arts-CT Reading Interven- tion English Language Arts-CT Math Applica- tions Work experience Math Applications Work experience Math Applica- tions Art Work experience Art Work experience Art
Post School Schedule MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday Computer class Work at campus catering Computer class Work at campus catering Computer class One-Stop Center Resume Work at campus catering One-Stop Center Resume Work at campus catering One-Stop center Resume Comm. Based Instruction Work at campus catering Comm. Based Instruction Work at campus catering Comm. Based Instruction Mobility instruc- tion home Comm. Based Instruction Mobility instruc- tion home Comm. Based Instruction