Using peers to teach/model independent living skills
WHY? Peers have easy access to : General education Social situations Community involvement Academically and Behaviorally Classroom, hallway, cafeteria, gym, after school activities and extra curricular activities volunteering, work experience, and service learning
how to find students ? o Ask other school personnel o Ask the student with the disabilities if there are particular peers in their classes o Make classroom observations o Ask for volunteers o Post announcements on a bulletin board o Make announcements at assemblies o Ask student organizations
Screening a Peer Buddy o Teacher Recommendations o Written Applications o Interview Student o Have student observe student with disabilities
Here are some steps: 1. Identify your students in need and their goals. 2. Identify periods/times of day that you need mentors 3. Set up a reward/incentive program for your peers. 4. Pick students. 5. Send home permission slips or notices. 6. Set up training. 7. Schedule your mentors 8. Use sign-in sheets. 9. Keep track of your students and their volunteering time. 10. Bring in new mentors, or give your mentors a break every so often to keep them fresh!
PREPARING THE PEER ORIENTATION o Have peer observe student o Give them time to get acquainted o Set expectations o Peer buddy roles o People first language o Student information (binder) o Confidentiality o Effective instructional strategies o Interaction activities o Suggests for activities o Addressing challenging behavior o Emergency procedures
SOCIAL SKILLS Students know better than anyone which social behaviors are acceptable among students at their school.
SOCIAL SKILLS o Extending conversational turns o Modeling appropriate social skills o Reinforcing communication attempts o Redirecting inappropriate conversational topics o Making initial introductions o Extending interactions outside of the classroom o Encouraging their peer to interact socially
SOCIAL STORIES/VIDEO MODELING Sansosti & Powell-Smith (2008)
FACT Research shows that peers can be quite adept at supporting their classmates and that a number of academic and social benefits are available to participating students with and without disabilities (see Carter, Cushing, Clark, & Kennedy, 2005; Cushing & Kennedy, 1997; Kennedy & Itkonen, 1994; Shukla, Kennedy, & Cushing, 1998, 1999). Academically, peer support arrangements offer some distinct advantages over individually assigned paraprofessional support.
ACADEMIC ASSISTANCE Materials Modify the assignment length Break the assignments in smaller tasks Provide an advance organizer of the activity or assignment Highlight important words and concepts Help the student use tape record, computer or calculator Ask the teacher to provide an alternate assignment Assist the student with using a personal organizer Make sure the student has the right materials and is in the right place
ACADEMIC ASSISTANCE Learning Environment Remove anything that may distract the student Make sure the student as a clear view of the teacher and board Help the student organize his or her materials help the student keep a clear desk Show the student how to use a checklist to stay organized
Extracurricular activities Extracurricular activities are program which fulfill two basic conditions: 1)They are structured in a way where these is a mission or goal 2)They are not part of the regular curricular program
Extra curricular activities Why are extra curricular activities important? o Youth who participate in extra curricular activities have better grades (Marsh, 1992) o Have high test scores (Gerber 1996) o Have high educational attainment (Hanks & Eckland, 1976) o Attend school more regularly (Mahoney & Cairns, 1997) o Have high self-concepts (Marsh, 1992) o Less likely to drop out of school (Mahoney & Cains, 1997)
FACT § 300.107Nonacademic services-IDEA The State must ensure the following: (a)Each public agency must take steps, including the provision of supplementary aids and services determined appropriate and necessary by the child's IEP Team, to provide nonacademic and extracurricular services and activities in the manner necessary to afford children with disabilities an equal opportunity for participation in those services and activities. (b) Nonacademic and extracurricular services and activities may include counseling services, athletics, transportation, health services, recreational activities, special interest groups or clubs sponsored by the public agency, referrals to agencies that provide assistance to individuals with disabilities, and employment of students, including both employment by the public agency and assistance in making outside employment available
WHERE TO BEGIN? o Identify potential activities o Determine activity requirements o Address Logistical issues o Identify peer buddies o Determine support needs o Determine peer buddy responsibilities o Collaborate with Stuff o Address Potential Challenges
COMMUNITY BASED INSTRUCTION Visiting public library to do research Going on school field trips Travel to nursing home for a service learning project
SERVICE LEARNING The National Secondary Transition Secondary Assistance Center clearly identifies service learning as one possibility in fulfilling the work experience, transition standards and quality indicator. Service learning can be incorporated into the general education curriculum for the benefit of all students. Service learning provides work experience in addition to other skills for students with disabilities who may not have opportunity in their academic schedule for paid work experience.