Presentation on theme: "AAC, IEP Goals and Beyond"— Presentation transcript:
1 AAC, IEP Goals and Beyond Margaret Perkins, M.A.CCC-SLP, ATP
2 IDEAA major focus of IDEA has been to address meaningful access to general education.Alignment of IEP goals to state standards is how we insure accountability to the access of general education curriculum
3 Special Education and IDEA Today in Special Education overallGoals written are moving towardsGrade Level Curriculum (with modification)Alignment with State StandardsMeaningful and functionalToday in Special Education:Assistive Technology is addressed in every IEP.Purpose of Assistive Technology is to insure access to curriculum.
4 Special Education, AAC and IDEA Today in Special EducationAugmentative and Alternative Communication is often approached as a separate and isolated skill resulting in a disconnection from educational goals.AAC Goals can be written that address:Grade Level Curriculum (with modifications)Aligned with State StandardsLanguage skills that are meaningful and functional to the individual student for both educational and communication needs.
5 “If you don’t know where your going any road will take you there” Lewis Carrollquotation fromAlice in Wonderland
6 AAC in the school setting: Where do we want to go? Students to achieve proficiency in the ability to communicate using AAC.Students to achieve success in meeting educational based goals because they are adept AAC usersRemember:The use of technology should not be considered an educational outcome, but rather a means toward achieving independence and success through active participation.
7 How do we get there? 1. Start with assessment: Team assessment 2. Determine present level of performance: strengths and needs3. Determine how present level of performance affects involvement and progress in general education curriculum and grade expectations4. Connect this information to accommodations and/or modifications5. Write Goals based on present level of performance identified6. Provide authentic opportunities to use the skills that they are being taught
8 Areas to addressOperational competence: Technical skills required to operate a system - i.e. the motor and cognitive skills required to signal a message or to operate specific device features(touching scene, navigating, visual scanning, operating switches, etc.).Linguistic competence: Language (vocabulary and grammar) understanding and use of the code (e.g. signs or symbols) required to operate the AACSocial competence: Knowledge and use of the social rules of communication, (i.e. eye contact, turn taking, initiating, talking and using communication for a variety of reasons - commenting, requesting items, responding, questioning, directing, etc..Strategic competence: The ability to adapt communicative style to suit the receiver i.e. repeating, clarification, speaking louder or turning device up…Light J (1989) Toward a Definition of Communicative Competence for Individuals using Augmentativeand Alternative Communication Systems AAC Vol 5 (2).
9 TeamOperational competence: O.T., SLP, Educator: Motor and operational Linguistic competence: SLP, Educator: Language (vocabulary and grammar) Social competence: SLP, Educator: Pragmatics Strategic competence: SLP: Pragmatics
10 A Noun Focus May Be Appropriate for Typically Developing Children ManualA Noun Focus May Be Appropriate for Typically Developing ChildrenStandardized tests in the field of speech and language exert pressure on professionals to emphasize nounsLanguage tests for young children focus on noun identificationBasal or entry scores often require five or more consecutive noun identificationsFunctional core vocabulary, however, is not noun richClinicians are systematically directed toward noun teaching as opposed to language teaching to prepare students for success on standardized tests
11 What Words do Children and Adults Really Use? ManualWhat Words do Children and Adults Really Use?78 percent of the words we use daily are drawn from a core of fewer than 400 wordsThese 400 words are used over and over and are called core vocabularyCore vocabulary is consistent across clinical populations, activities, places, topics and demographic groupsLess frequently occurring words are called fringe vocabulary (typical adult vocabulary has 10,000+ fringe words)
12 The Vocabulary of Toddlers ManualThe Vocabulary of ToddlersBanajee, DiCarlo & Stricklin, (AAC 2000)Participants50 toddlers between the ages of 2 & 3 yearsThirty-four girls and sixteen boysUsed a variety of 2 to 3 word utterancesSpontaneously initiated interaction, maintained interaction by taking turns, and terminated interaction appropriatelyConsistently followed simple one step directives and some two-step directives without gesturesThis slide speaks for itself. You may wish to read certain lines and ask participants to read certain lines.
13 ManualLanguage Analysis10 words were used across all activities and environmentsSyntactic functions expressed included pronouns (I, you), verbs (want) and demonstratives (this, it)Pragmatic and semantic functions expressed included requesting action (want), negation (no), affirmation (yes), and establishing joint attention (that, it)A lack of nouns was noted
14 Why the Problem?Why do Speech Pathologists and clinicians focus on noun labeling and noun vocabulary growth?Easy to assessClear, definable target goalsClinicians determine noun labeling skills to be precursor to language developmentMost early assessment tools focus on noun labeling skills
15 Not Applicable to AAC Users Focus on noun labeling does not teach communication skills necessary for language growthStudents are trained to label objects, but lack language skills to be able to use in language context
16 Which Assessments to Use? Review of commonly used vocabulary assessments for preschool languageDetermine frequency of core language vocabulary as opposed to noun “fringe” labelingDetermine which assessments provide the clinician information on a student’s ability to acquire and use core vocabulary
17 Vocabulary Assessments Breakdown of words by parts of speechAmount of core vocabulary addressed26 core words (Banajee, DiCarlo & Stricklin)333 core words (Marvin, Beukelman, Bilyeu)Ceiling levels for testingAddresses vocabulary up to the 6 year level
18 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- III Parts of SpeechTotal number26 core words(Banajee)333 core words(Marvin)Noun311(hand)Verb14(going)5(drinking, jumping, fly, painting, going)Adj.3PrepositionCeiling: 8 or more errors in a set (12 items)
19 Beery Picture Vocabulary Test Parts of SpeechTotal number26 core words(Banajee)333 core words(Marvin)Noun341(girl)VerbAdj.PrepositionCeiling: 8 consecutive errors
20 (car, house, chair, hand, door, people) Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary TestParts of SpeechTotal number26 core words(Banajee)333 core words(Marvin)Noun346(car, house, chair, hand, door, people)Verb71(cutting)Adj.3(open)PrepositionCeiling: 6 or more errors in a set (8 items)
21 Expressive Vocabulary Test Parts of SpeechTotal number26 core words(Banajee)333 core words(Marvin)Noun296(car, dog, ball, hand, house, leaf)Verb31(going)2(biting, run)Adj.5(red, blue, green, three, five)PrepositionCeiling: 5 consecutive errors
22 Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test Parts of SpeechTotal number26 core words(Banajee)333 core words(Marvin)Noun365(tree, bird, swing, leaf, cup)Verb1(paint)Adj.PrepositionCeiling: 6 consecutive errors
23 Concepts Preschoolers talk about Core vocabulary studies demonstrate a large amount of testable concepts to be words that preschoolers most often useThese include: up/down, before/after, in/out, open/shut, first/middle/last, big/little, mine/yours, some/many/all/more/most
24 Comprehensive Language Assessments Many have an expressive vocabulary subtest componentVocabulary skills are usually 1/3 or greater of overall language scoreVocabulary subtests follow similar patterns to standard vocabulary assessment toolsAssessment tools that addressed Concepts tended to utilize more core vocabulary than others
25 Some Language Assessment Tools that include concepts and a variety of parts of speech Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) - Preschool*Boehm Test of Basic Concepts*Preschool Language Scale (PLS)Structured Photographic Expressive Language TestPreschool Language Assessment InstrumentTest of Language DevelopmentEvaluating Acquired Skills in Communication - Informal Communication Skills Inventory* receptive language tests of concept knowledge
26 Boehm Test of Basic Concepts Designed for preschoolersNormed for ages 3.0 to 5.015 minutes to administerTaped recordings of “teacher talk” - the language used by teachers in the classrooms1/3 of directional sentences used at least one concept70% of vocab items were used by all teachers
27 Core Vocabulary Used in Boehm Total number% ofwordsExamplesTotal wordsassessed2610026 core words(Banajee)13.8up333 core words(Marvin)1454Long(est), down, all, many, middle, high(est), togetherNon-nouns
28 (drinking, jumping, fly, painting, going) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- IIIParts of SpeechTotal number26 core words(Banajee)333 core words(Marvin)Noun311(hand)Verb14(going)5(drinking, jumping, fly, painting, going)Adj.3PrepositionCeiling: 8 or more errors in a set (12 items)
29 Comprehensive Language Assessments Many have an expressive vocabulary subtest componentVocabulary skills are usually 1/3 or greater of overall language scoreVocabulary subtests follow similar patterns to standard vocabulary assessment toolsAssessment tools that addressed Concepts tended to utilize more core vocabulary than others
30 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - Preschool CoreLang.Recep.Lang (3-4)(5-6)Ex.(3-6)Content(3-4)StrucSentence StructureWord StructureExpressive VocabConcepts and FDRecalling SentencesBasic ConceptsWord Classes - ReceptiveWord Classes - Total
31 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Comprehensive language assessment tool7 subtestsAssesses both receptive and expressive language skills
32 Sentence Structure subtest Includes receptive vocabulary for: in, under, towards, will, first, two, third, before, shouldn’t, front, althoughPoint to “the first two children are in line, but the third child is still playing”
33 Core Vocabulary used for SS Total number% ofwordsExamplesTotal wordsassessed6010026 core words(Banajee)58.3Is, it,you, in, the333 core words(Marvin)2847Before, being, black, box, find, can, go, girl, hold, need, sit, she, tree, ready, you, yourNon-nouns5083
35 Basic Concepts subtest Assesses a child’s receptive understanding of conceptsSimilar to Boehm testIncludes direction, quantity, sequence, attribute, size, same/different
36 Long(est), down, all, many, middle, high(est), together Core Vocabulary for BCTotal number% ofwordsExamplesTotal wordsassessed1810026 core words(Banajee)15.5up333 core words(Marvin)844Long(est), down, all, many, middle, high(est), togetherNon-nouns
37 Concepts and Following Directions subtest Includes both concepts and multi-step directionsMultiple modifiers“Point to the dog before you point to the turtles”
38 Core Vocabulary in C&FD Total number% ofwordsExamplesTotal wordsassessed2710026 core words(Banajee)311.1I, you, the333 core words(Marvin)1348Next to, or, then, both, all, after, first, lastNon-nouns
39 Word Structure subtest Expressive Language subtestChild’s use of morphology“Here is a shoe. It is small. Here is a shoe. _________ .”
40 On, she, they, in, her, box, big, chair Core Vocabulary for WSTotal number% ofwordsExamplesTotal wordsassessed3010026 core words(Banajee)413.3In, on, it, is333 core words(Marvin)1240On, she, they, in, her, box, big, chairNon-nouns2480
41 Word Classes subtest Receptive and expressive subtest Ask student which two items go togetherHave student explain why (“you take them to the beach”)
42 Recalling Sentences Subtest Student repeats back a sentence verbatimScored for OK (3), 1 error (2), 2-3 errors (1) and 0 score for 4+ errorsMany of our AAC students have difficulty with remembering fringe vocabulary and core vocabulary for syntaxHe is nice.They play with blocks.The boy fell and hurt himself.Didn’t the boys eat the apples?The rabbit was not put in the cage by the girl.
44 Some Good Ones… Test of Language Development (TOLD) - Primary Includes an Oral Vocabulary subtest where the student is asked to tell what words meanFor example, “What is a dog?” - the student can respond by using core vocabulary with selective fringe vocabulary (“It is an animal”, “It is furry”) “What is an apple?” (“You eat it.”)
45 Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test Asks student to look at a picture and “tell” about itIncludes expressive concepts, preposition/spatial relations, number and quantity, tense of verbs, etc.Includes questions (“Do you want some?”, “Is this yours?”)For children ages 4 to 9
46 Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test - II “Tell me about this picture”Acceptable: He draws, is drawing, writes, is writing
48 Last wordsVocabulary is important, but only as it has relevance to a students use of it in language. Using assessment tools that reflect core vocabulary, may provide you with a more accurate depiction of a student’s language skills and the goals and benchmarks needed to reach them
49 Remember when writing AAC into your child’s IEP One of the jurors had a pencil that squeaked. This, of course, Alice could not stand, and she went round the court and got behind him, and very soon found an opportunity of taking it away. She did it so quickly that the poor little juror (it was Bill the Lizard) could not make out at all what had become of it, so, after hunting all about for it, he was obliged to write with one finger for the rest of the day, and this was of very little use, as it left no mark on the slate.
50 Literacy and Language Listening, speaking, reading and writing are interrelated and develop concurrentlyGrowth in any of the four areas fosters growth in the othersUnavailability of any one area limits growth in all four areasThe most powerful intervention involves all four components simultaneouslyBaker, 1997This applies to Language, AAC and Curriculum
51 Aligning to State Standards Rather than a “cookbook” approach: Suggestions on what AAC goals to align to state standards Suggestions on how to align to state standards
52 One more thing...We are addressing aligning AAC goals to State Standards For students who are enrolled in a Special Day Class (California) they already have functional goals that are aligned to State Standards Can we keep all of this straight?
53 What AAC goals to align Operational Issues involved may include: Cognitive- i.e. sequencingMotor- i.e. motor movement-accuracySensory- i.e. vision*access to curriculum
54 What AAC goals to align Appropriate use of greetings Pragmatic/Social Language (use)Appropriate use of greetingsConversational skillsInitiatingTurn takingMaking requests/Answering requestsPragmatics/Strategic (use)Using core vocabulary when specific vocabulary is not availableRepair strategies/Clarify, rephrase, expand…*Narrative skills-Directly related to literacy
55 What AAC goals to align Linguistic-semantics Meaning of single words Meaningful relations of words(agent-action, possession, negation…)Word knowledge/Concepts / Categorization / Comparison…* All areas of academics are affected by a weakness in semantics
56 What AAC goals to align Linguistics/Morphology Linguistics/Syntax Smallest elements of meaning (plural, tense markers, comparatives…)Linguistics/SyntaxParts of speech, word order, and sentence construction*Grammar errors in written language*Difficulty comprehending complex sentences in written language
57 How to Align to State Standards Use a systematic approachAddress:Language needsAcademic needsState standards that underlying Language needs and Academic needs both affectAligned goal
58 Language Skill addressed-Grade level Language area addressed:Academic area addressed:Content Standard:Aligned AAC goalPresent level of Performance:
59 Pragmatic/Social Grade 2 Language area addressed:Pragmatics/ Topic maintenancePresent level of Performance: Pragmatics: During conversation Suzie will imitate comments and asks questions when given a direct verbal and visual cue 8 out of 10 opportunities
60 Pragmatic/Social Grade 2 Language area addressed:Pragmatics/ Topic maintenanceAcademic area addressed:Comprehension strategies to understand grade-level-appropriate materialPresent level of Performance: Pragmatics: During conversation Suzie will imitate comments and asks questions when given a direct verbal and visual cue 8 out of 10 opportunitiesPresent level of Performance:Comprehension of short storyFollowing the reading of a short story Suzie can answer (who, what, where, when) questions with 30% accuracy
61 Pragmatic/Social Grade 2 Language area addressed:Pragmatics/ Topic maintenanceAcademic area addressed:Comprehension strategies to understand grade-level-appropriate materialContent Standard:English/Language ArtsAligned AAC goalPresent level of Performance: Pragmatics: During conversation Suzie will imitate comments and asks questions when given a direct verbal and visual cue 8 out of 10 opportunitiesPresent level of Performance:Comprehension of short storyFollowing the reading of a short story Suzie can answer (who, what, where, when) questions with 30% accuracyReading Comprehension 2.0.4Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how).Reading comprehension 2.0Ask and answer questions about a textFollowing the reading of a short story Suzie will demonstrate topic maintenance by asking questions and/or making comments 4 out of 5 opportunities for at least 4 turns using her AAC device
62 Pragmatics/Strategic Grade 4 Language area addressed:Pragmatics/ClarificationAcademic area addressed:Organizing and delivering oral informationContent Standard:English/Language ArtsAligned AAC goalPresent level of Performance: Pragmatics:Suzie will give information using one to two word phrases and when communication partner indicates that he/she does not understand by repeating but she does not rephrase or expand her sentence.Present level of Performance:Suzie uses one to two word phrases to deliver information.Listening and Speaking Use details, examples, anecdotes, or experiences to explain or clarify informationAlternative LevelSpeaking and Listening:1.0Goal:Use appropriate conversational skillsWhen given an indirect verbal cue Suzie will give an expanded sentence, for example “eat” to “ I want to eat” or “I don’t want to eat” or “I want to eat that” or “Do you want to eat” 4 out of 5 opportunities using her AAC device.
63 Linguistic Grade 4 Language area addressed: Syntax: Past tense Pronoun PhrasesAcademic area addressed:Describe: social, political, cultural,& economic life of the people of CaliforniaContent Standard:History-Social Studies4.2.5Aligned AAC goalPresent level of Performance:Susie uses only present tense pronouns when relating information or sharing experiences with her communication partner. Uses past tense phrases with icons when given physical prompts 8 of 10 opportunities.Following a paragraph about California historySuzie retells two pieces of information in sentences using present progressive tense.California: A Changing State Describe the daily lives of the people, native and non-native, who occupied the presidios, missions, ranchos, and publosSociology Standard 1Student will observe, analyze, and interpert human behaviors and relationships to acquire a better of self and others while developing communication skillsFollowing a story, given a visual cue Suzie will relate information of past events or experiences using appropriate past tense phrases i.e. She felt…He liked… It had…with 80% accuracy
64 Linguistic Grade 7 Language area addressed: Semantics Academic area addressed:Students use strategies, skills, and concepts in finding solutionsContent Standard:MathematicsMathematical ReasoningAligned AAC goalPresent level of Performance:Suzie will use a descriptor vocabulary word in a sentence when she has a visual and verbal prompt with 60% accuracy.When given two shapes to compare/contrast Suzie is able to describe attributes with 40% accuracy2.2.6 Mathematical:Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with evidence in both verbal and symbolic work. Discrete Mathematics2.0Will sort and classify by attributesGiven a visual cue Suzie will answer in a complete sentence, using her AAC device, math related description questions (i.e. It is smaller, larger, more, less, the same as…) 4 out of 5 opportunities
65 Other AAC goals that can be easily aligned Because they are specific rather than general there are many AAC goals that are easily aligned in the areas of:English/Language ArtsPhonologyMathematicsAccess to math vocabularyAccess to Function (i.e. calculator)(see handout)
66 Language Skill addressed-Grade level Language area addressed:Expressive LanguageAcademic area addressed:Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabetContent Standard:Reading: Word Analysis K1.1.6Aligned AAC goalPresent level of Performance:Susie can answer “wh” questions non-verbally regarding letters of the alphabet using a communication boardSusie can identify the letters: b,c,t,s,m given a verbal cue and letters on an alphabet board by pointingGiven a verbal cue Suzie will identify, using her AAC device all lower case letters of the alphabet 4 out of 5 opportunities
67 Now that we have the goals, what’s next? Successful integration and participation of students into the general education classUnderstanding of concepts addressedGet adult buy-inReframing assessmentsCollaboration, Collaboration, CollaborationUse what you haveCheck-insProvide authentic opportunities to use and learn skills
68 Implementation Issues Team approach: Make sure everyone on the team is on the same page“I can understand everything they want/need”This may be true for some members of the team so THOSE team members are in the position to:Help broaden communication partnersRaise expectations for the student and staffProvide language models beyond nouns and close-ended questions
69 AAC and Literacy“Approximately 70% of individuals with severe communication impairments are significantly behind their peers in literacy learning.”Koppenhaver & Yoder, 1992
70 Integrate AAC and Literacy Listening, speaking, reading and writing are interrelated and develop concurrentlyGrowth in any of the four areas fosters growth in the othersUnavailability of any one area limits growth in all four areasThe most powerful intervention involves all four components simultaneouslyKoppenhaver et al., 1991; Maehr, 1991; Teale & Sulzby, 1989 Baker, 1997
71 Basic Components of Literacy Oral Language: Listening and speakingPhonological awareness: Relationship between written letters and spoken soundsPhonemic awareness: Work with individual sounds in spoken words (blocks)Fluency: Read text accurately and effectivelyWriting: Create written works