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Spring Dr. Kimiko Akita February 5, 2013 The American Schindler and The Japanese Schindler: Ralph Lawrence Carr (1887-1950) and Sempo ( Chiune.

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Presentation on theme: "Spring Dr. Kimiko Akita February 5, 2013 The American Schindler and The Japanese Schindler: Ralph Lawrence Carr (1887-1950) and Sempo ( Chiune."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spring Dr. Kimiko Akita February 5, 2013 The American Schindler and The Japanese Schindler: Ralph Lawrence Carr ( ) and Sempo ( Chiune ) Sugihara ( )

2 Ralph Lawrence Carr Ralph Lawrence Carr ( ) Ralph Lawrence Carr  Born in Rosita, Colorado, a mining town. Worked way through college.  A water rights attorney. State’s U.S. Attorney in Hoover administration during Prohibition. Elected Colorado governor in Turned down chance to run as VP with Wendell Willkie in 1940.

3  Governor : Restored state’s finances without increasing budget. Rising GOP star, potential presidential candidate.  Dec. 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor begins Pacific War. About 70% (93,000) of 127,000 Japanese-Americans living on West Coast. Anti-Japanese sentiment rises in U.S.  1942: Roosevelt declares martial law. “No Japs/Yellow Perils Wanted.” 10 internment camps in desolate places held 123,200 Japanese-Americans. 70% were born in U.S.  : Camp Amache, 350 km from Denver; held 7,500 Japanese-Americans.

4  Carr said: “That’s wrong! They’re U.S. citizens.” Opened Colorado to 3,500 Japanese- American evacuees from West Coast.  Principle: Denying anyone’s constitutional rights means denying rights of all Americans.  Carr hired Mitchie Terasaki, 92, as civil servant and another Japanese-American as nanny.  Results: Threats. “We will kill all Japs.” “Don’t allow Japs into Colorado.” Cost Carr his political career. Served only one term as governor. Lost Senate race in 1942.

5  Drafted to run for governor in Won GOP primary but died a few days later.  Carr’s bust erected in Sakura Square in1976.  Section of U.S. Route 285 and C-480 named Ralph Carr Memorial Highway in  New Colorado state judicial complex named Ralph L. Carr Justice Center.  Japanese American Citizens League created award in his honor in 2012.

6 Sempo SugiharaSempo Sugihara ( ) Sempo Sugihara  Born: Gifu, Japan. Samurai family.  Father, a medical doctor, stationed in Korea. Wanted Sempo to become doctor, but Sempo rebelled. Earned scholarship and studied in China; learned fluency in Russian. 1924: Secretary of Foreign Ministry; 1932: Diplomat in Manchuria. (Russian wife ) Became Christian in Diplomat to Finland in Became Japanese consulate general in Lithuania in 1939.

7  1939: German-Soviet Treaty.  Russia occupied Lithuania.  1940: Polish Jews escaped into Lithuania. Sought visas to Dutch colony of Curacao.  Japanese denied Sugihara’s requests for transit visas for Jews. Disobeyed government; issued at least 2,139 transit visas.  1941: Nazis attack Lithuania; Russians retreat. 196,000 of 208,000 Lithuanian Jews killed.  1944: Soviets reclaimed Lithuania.

8  1946: Sugihara working in Europe.  : Imprisoned by Soviets.  1968: B. Gehashra Nishri, Jewish transit VISA receiver, reunited with Sugihara.  1985: Becomes only Japanese to receive Israel’s “Righteous Among the Nations” award.  2000: Japanese officially apologized to Sugihara family, noting humanitarianism.  2005: “Sugihara: Conspiracy of Kindness.” Sugihara: Conspiracy of KindnessSugihara: Conspiracy of Kindness  2011: tsunami/earthquake. U.S. Jewish Orthodox Union said time to return favor for Sugihara’s saving 6,000 Jews.  2012: Boca Raton ceremony honors Sugihara.

9 Solly Ganor : Lithuanian holocaust survivor. Received visa from Sugihara. Rescued by nisei Allied soldier Clarence Matsumura. Ganor kept his experience secret until Wrote “Light One Candle” (1995). I met and wrote about Ganor in  1911: 2 of grandfather’s sisters migrated to Brazil. During WWII, Japanese-Brazilians sent to internment camps in U.S. I met distant Brazilian relative in Japan in My personal experience

10 “Extraordinary people who described themselves as ordinary.” — Adam Schrager  Carr: Rediscovered by Schrager (2008)  Sugihara: Rediscovered by Nishri (1968) They embraced the diversity of humanity. “We are the people of the U.S. If we are sent to a prison because of where our ancestors are from, we will lose our rights.” They set aside self-interest, retained conscience. Courage to stand up for principle. “Life is to suffer, to survive, and to find a meaning in the suffering, and each must find out a purpose in life for himself.”— Viktor Frankl


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