1987 -- OSEP funded our proposal to examine technology-based approaches to enhance mathematical problem solving. We found that difficulty in fact recall and computation fluency interfered with the student’s ability to solve problems even when they conceptualized the problem correctly.
In a recent study of addition fact fluency with 315 grade 4-8 special education students, only 40 students could provide more than 40 correct digits per minute to randomly presented addition facts. CA vs Rate
After assessing these 40 students using “chronometric analysis”only 2 students were shown to be fluent on all 100 basic addition facts. CA vs Rate
Fluency Problem Fact fluency is a problem in both special and regular education and has been shown to be related to performance on standardized achievement tests. Royer et al. (1999). Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 181-266.
Computerized Drill and Practice There is no evidence that the use of simple computerized drill and practice will lead to the develop of fluent math facts in struggling learners. (Hasselbring, Goin, & Sherwood, 1988)
Assess Small Instruction Set Controlled Response Time Corrective Feedback Use expanding recall Practice only learned information FASTT Model * * Fluency and Automaticity through Systematic Teaching with Technology
FASTT Results Found that special education students could reach high levels of speed and accuracy in fact retrieval.
FASTT Math Designed to develop fact fluency in students with special needs. Published 2005 Mainstream product
Margin to the Mainstream Over the past year, far more FASTT Math has been placed in regular education classes than special education classes. Phoenix Union -- district-wide 9th-10th grade math Hillsborough County Florida -- district-wide 2-8 Omaha Public Schools -- district-wide 2-8 Plano ISD (TX) -- district-wide
1985 Received first of several OSEP grants to examine the use of technology for providing reading intervention to middle and high school students with learning disabilities.
Why Technology? It was our belief that technology offered some advantages over more traditional forms of intervention: systematic individualized instruction based on continuous monitoring and corrective feedback of student performance ability to provide a motivating learning environment that was appropriate for older students ability to provide background knowledge prior to engaging in text. ability to support teachers who were not reading specialists
Focus on fluency and comprehension Used FASTT model to increase word-level fluency Used Anchored Instruction to provide background knowledge and mental models of text for improved comprehension
The Hatch The real hatch would begin around two in the afternoon and last for at least a few hours. It would be all BWOs for a while, then Olives mixed with Pale Morning Duns, then those two mixed with a few bigger Sulphurs. Scattered in there at various times you could also see a few small Red Quills, maybe some caddis, or even a few rare, late-season Green Drakes.
Margin to the Mainstream Since being published in 1999, READ 180 has been widely used in both regular and special education. Used in all 50 states More than 10,000 classrooms More than 1,000,000 students
Striving Readers Grants The purpose of the Striving Readers program is to raise the reading achievement levels of middle and high school-aged students in Title I-eligible schools with significant numbers of students reading below grade level.
Striving Readers Grants Four of the eight 2005-06 awardees proposed the use of READ 180 as the intervention program.
Technology infrastructure in schools is not sufficient to carry-out large scale technology intervention. Technology intervention is not immune to fidelity of implementation problems. Professional development needs to be focused on the integration of technology and learning - not just technology.
Challenges Getting Congress to understand that funding technology research in special education impacts all students in a positive way.
Future predictions Faster, smaller, cheaper technology More ubiquitous technology More software intervention in the math area The much promised “speech recognition”will actually be seen in products and will work. I retire!