Presentation on theme: "Jews, Spain, the U.S., Israel, & Europe Melanie Rockoff."— Presentation transcript:
Jews, Spain, the U.S., Israel, & Europe Melanie Rockoff
When & Why did Jews leave Spain? Year: 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expel Jews (about 200,000) from Spain – Some Jews fled – Some forced to convert – Tens of thousands killed Country unified behind Christianity
Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish, is the spoken and written Hispanic language of Jews of Spanish origin.
Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול It is derived from medieval Castilian Spanish and spoken by the descendents of the Sephardim.
Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול Ladino did not become a specifically Jewish language until after the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492.
Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול Ladino has traditionally been written using the Hebrew alphabet; during the 20 th century, Ladino was additionally written using the Latin alphabet.
Current Jewish population by country: – Israel: 6,042,000 – United States: 5,425,000 Illinois: 297,935 New York: 1,761,020 California: 1,223,640 New Jersey: 504,450 – Spain: 12,000 Madrid: 3,500 Barcelona: 3,500
Sephardic vs. Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi: descendants of Jews from France, Germany and Eastern Europe Sephardic: descendants of Jews from Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East
Jews in the United States pre-WWI – 1860: European Jews begin to immigrate to U.S. 1882-1914: 2 million European Jews enter U.S. – Reasons: Anti-Semitism & pogroms Desire for better life/fresh start – Majority shift: Sephardim Ashkenazi – Jews flock to larger cities (NYC, Chicago, etc.)
Jews in Europe during WWII 1938: Nazi-organized pogroms begin Many Jews sought refuge in the U.S. (some in Spain, too) 1941 more and more European countries systematically deport Jews to concentration camps Total number of Jews killed in the Holocaust: 6 million
Israel According to the Torah, God promised the land of Israel to the Jewish people 11 th century BCE Kingdom of Israel Roman Empire invades Jewish-Roman Wars Mass Jewish genocide 635 C.E. Muslims take over the land and rule for 1300 years Jewish Diaspora Jews look back to Israel to reclaim a homeland 19 th century Eastern European pogroms more exiled Jews Palestine holds increasing number of Jews
The U.S. & Israel 1948 Israel becomes sovereign nation recognized and supported by U.S. Religious & political ties – Shared religious heritage – Democratic ideology – Jewish population in U.S. – Etc.