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Jews, Spain, the U.S., Israel, & Europe Melanie Rockoff.

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Presentation on theme: "Jews, Spain, the U.S., Israel, & Europe Melanie Rockoff."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jews, Spain, the U.S., Israel, & Europe Melanie Rockoff

2 When & Why did Jews leave Spain? Year: 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expel Jews (about 200,000) from Spain – Some Jews fled – Some forced to convert – Tens of thousands killed Country unified behind Christianity

3 Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish, is the spoken and written Hispanic language of Jews of Spanish origin.

4 Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול It is derived from medieval Castilian Spanish and spoken by the descendents of the Sephardim.

5 Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול Ladino did not become a specifically Jewish language until after the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492.

6 Ladino גודיאו - איספאנייול Ladino has traditionally been written using the Hebrew alphabet; during the 20 th century, Ladino was additionally written using the Latin alphabet.

7 Current Jewish population by country: – Israel: 6,042,000 – United States: 5,425,000 Illinois: 297,935 New York: 1,761,020 California: 1,223,640 New Jersey: 504,450 – Spain: 12,000 Madrid: 3,500 Barcelona: 3,500

8 Sephardic vs. Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi: descendants of Jews from France, Germany and Eastern Europe Sephardic: descendants of Jews from Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East

9 Jews in the United States pre-WWI – 1860: European Jews begin to immigrate to U.S : 2 million European Jews enter U.S. – Reasons: Anti-Semitism & pogroms Desire for better life/fresh start – Majority shift: Sephardim  Ashkenazi – Jews flock to larger cities (NYC, Chicago, etc.)

10 Jews in Europe during WWII 1938: Nazi-organized pogroms begin Many Jews sought refuge in the U.S. (some in Spain, too) 1941  more and more European countries systematically deport Jews to concentration camps Total number of Jews killed in the Holocaust: 6 million

11 Israel According to the Torah, God promised the land of Israel to the Jewish people 11 th century BCE  Kingdom of Israel Roman Empire invades  Jewish-Roman Wars Mass Jewish genocide 635 C.E. Muslims take over the land and rule for 1300 years Jewish Diaspora  Jews look back to Israel to reclaim a homeland 19 th century Eastern European pogroms  more exiled Jews Palestine holds increasing number of Jews

12 The U.S. & Israel 1948  Israel becomes sovereign nation recognized and supported by U.S. Religious & political ties – Shared religious heritage – Democratic ideology – Jewish population in U.S. – Etc.

13 Temple Jeremiah

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