You Learned: Thousands of adventurers and pioneers followed trails to the West to make their fortunes and settle the land, as well as to avoid religious persecution.
Today You Will Learn: Conflicts between American settlers and the government of Mexico led Texas to revolt and win independence from Mexico in 1836.
Key Terms Stephen Austin Tejanos Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Sam Houston Battle of the Alamo” Remember the Alamo!” Lone Star Republic Annex
Notes Moses Austin, Stephen Austin’s father, gained permission to start a colony in Spanish Texas, agreed to follow Spanish law.
Mexico Gained Independence From Spain Stephen Austin arrives in 1821 Asks Mexican government to start the colony, agree if members become: 1.Mexican citizens 2.Members of the Roman Catholic Church 3.Follow Mexican Laws 1821-1825, 300 families come 1.New Life 2.Escape Law 3.Get Rich
Increased Number of Settlers=Increased Tension By 1830, 30,000 settlers, outnumber Tejanos (Texans of Mexican heritage) 6 to 1 9 of 10 African Americans in Texas are slaves
Settlers Resent Mexican Laws: Mexican documents are in Spanish Mexico outlaws slavery in 1829 Austin convinces Mexico to allow Texan slave owners to keep slaves
Review Questions 1.Who originally negotiated with the Spanish to start an American colony in Texas? 2.Name 3 laws the Americans must agree to follow before the Mexican government agrees to allow Stephen Austin to start an American colony in Mexico. 3.What percentage of the African-Americans in Texas were slaves? 4.Identify 2 reasons Americans are upset with the Mexican government.
Rumors of Revolution= Mexico Cracks Down on Texas 1830 Laws: 1.Closed Texas to further immigration 2.Must pay taxes for first time, Tariffs on American Goods 3.Sent troops to enforce new laws
Texas Revolt vs. Mexico: War vs. Peace (Recent immigrants vs. Austin) Austin asks President Santa Anna to lift restrictions, other requests: 1. Texas to become a self-governing state within Mexico 2. Documents in English 3. Own religion
War Santa Anna agreed, but finds letter Austin wrote saying if requests weren’t met, he would support breaking away, Austin jailed for one year More troops and tax collectors sent Army tries to take cannon, stopped Texans drive out Mexican troops from the Alamo Santa Anna sends 6,000 troops
Review Questions 1.Identify the 3 actions the Mexican government takes when it discovers rumors of revolution. 2.Who was the President of Mexico? 3.What restrictions or actions does Austin ask Mexico lift/do to prevent war? 4.Why was Stephen Austin jailed for one year by Mexico?
Fight for the Alamo 1836 Texans meet, declare Texas a free and independent republic Sam Houston placed in command of Texas army 180 at the Alamo: James Bowie, William Travis, Davy Crockett
Fight for the Alamo Santa Anna’s troops surround the Alamo Texans hold on 12 days, 1,300 men storm the Alamo on the 13 th day Texans run out of ammo, all but 7 Texans dead, defenders executed 1,000 Mexicans dead, “Remember the Alamo!” becomes battle cry
Goliad Texas troops at Goliad ordered to retreat 300 captured and executed “Remember Goliad!”
Victory at San Jacinto Houston’s forces grow to 800 Surprise Santa Anna and defeats them Texas gains independence Republic: A government system in which the people vote for representatives. (Representative Democracy)
Texas: Lone Star Republic Dec. 1836 Official Flag of Independent Texas
“Lone Star Republic” Many want to become part of the U.S. Asks Congress to annex Texas Northerners upset, will upset balance between slave and free states Votes against it Texas remained an independent republic until it gains statehood in 1845
Review Questions 1.Once Texas claims it’s independence from Mexico, who is put in charge of the army? 2.Explain the attack on the Alamo. 3.Explain why the battles at the Alamo and Goliad became battle cries. 4.In which battle are Santa Anna’s forces finally defeated? 5.Why does it take so long for Texas to gain statehood?