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The Scientific Process in Biology VCE Biology Unit One 2010 Mr Hale

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Scientific Process in Biology Previous Lesson – Observation – Hypothesis – If … then … statement – Independent variable – Dependent variable

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Scientific Process in Biology Today’s Lesson – Scientific Language – Experimental Design Variables – Controlled – Independent – Dependent – Control Experiment – Sample Size – Results (data [datum]) – Analysis – Discussion – Bibliography

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Scientific Language Science has a very exact structure, format and style Uses specialised words and phrases Procedure – Detailed factual description – Imperatives (e.g. draw a line, heat the water) – Time markers (e.g. after, until, as soon as) – Past Tense – Third person

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Scientific Language Genus and species names in italics Specific units of measure – mL, nm, μ m, m sec -1 (m/sec), mol L -1 (mol/L) Scientific notation for numbers – 3.4 x 10 4, 2.45 x Chemical symbols – H 2 O, NaCl, C 6 H 12 O 6 Harvard Author/Date Referencing Style

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Scientific Language Communicate with other scientists Know exactly what the hypothesis is Able to reproduce exactly the same experimental conditions Know exactly what the controlled, independent and dependent variables were.

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Variables Controlled – Define Independent – Define Dependent – Define

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Control Experiment Conducted at the same time as the main experiment. All the variables are the same in the control, except the independent variable being tested.

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Sample Size What is a ‘good’ sample size? Why ‘the larger the sample size’ the more accurate the results’? Is there such a thing as too big a sample size?

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Results How do you represent the results? – Tables – Graphs/Charts Bar Line – Scale (linear, logarithmic) Pie Others

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Results How do you represent the results? – Tables Trial Number of eggs hatched

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Results How do you represent the results? – Graph

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Analysis How do you analysis the results? – Interpretation – Statistical Analysis

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Discussion Tie in other research Discuss implications of results “Bring it all together” Suggest improvements to experiment Suggest further research

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References All other work must be correctly referenced (including your own) Harvard Author/Date referencing style

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Harvard Author/date URL:

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Harvard Author/date Examples: Campbell,M.A. (2005) Cyber bullying: An old problem in a new guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, vol. 15, issue 1, pp de Bono,E. (1992) Teach Your Child How to Think Penguin, London, UK. de Bono,E. CoRT Thinking Programme, computer software, accessed 28 th May 2009, from Cavendish Information Products, Oxford, UK. Gathercoal, F. and McEwan, B. (1999) ‘The Judicious Discipline Model’ in C.H. Wolfgang, (editor) Solving Discipline Problems: Methods and Models for Today’s Teachers, Fourth Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, USA, pp Prison Fellowship International (2009) ‘Restorative Justice Online’ in Prison Fellowship International Centre for Justice and Reconciliation, accessed 1 st June 2009, from

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Scientific Process in Biology Experimental Design -Hypothesis -Include: Variables -Independent -Dependent -Controlled -Control Experiment -Sample Size -Results -Analysis -Discussion -References (Bibliography)

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