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Quaternary Environments Ecosystem Pattern and Process Conservation Issues.

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Presentation on theme: "Quaternary Environments Ecosystem Pattern and Process Conservation Issues."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quaternary Environments Ecosystem Pattern and Process Conservation Issues

2 Patterns on the Landscape  Patterns of vegetation distribution  Scale Issues  Modern Issues  Fragmentation  Barriers to migration  Barriers to propagation

3 Patterns on the Landscape



6 Fig. 1-1 p. 2 World Population



9 Human Disturbance Tropic of Capricorn Equator Predominantly natural Partially disturbed Human dominated Antarctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Arctic Circle

10 North America by Night

11 Food Webs  Trophic Levels  Food Chains  Food Webs

12 Food Web Human Blue whaleSperm whale Crabeater seal Killer whale Elephant seal Leopard seal Adélie penguins Petrel Fish Squid Carnivorous plankton Krill Phytoplankton Herbivorous zooplankton Emperor penguin

13 Food Chain

14 Deciduous Forest Animals Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Bacteria Fungi Wood frog Racer Shagbark hickory White-tailed deer White-footed mouse White oak Gray squirrel Hairy woodpecker Broad-winged hawk Long-tailed weasel Long-tailed weasel May beetle Mountain winterberry Mountain winterberry Metallic wood-boring beetle and Metallic wood- boring beetle and larvae

15 1500 1850 1870 1880 1906 The Demise of Bison

16 Effects of Experimental Logging on Nitrate Levels (Hubbard-Brook Experimental Forest) 11 9 7 5 3 1 0 J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M 1965196619671968 Concentration (mg/liter -1 ) Time of deforestation Losses from disturbed watershed Losses from undisturbed watershed

17 Atmospheric CO2 for the Past 150,000 Years


19 Gross Primary Productivity


21 Preserve Boundaries

22 Public Lands

23 Natural Resource Depletion; Americans Grizzly bear NORTH AMERICA Spotted owl Black- footed ferret Kemp’s ridley turtle California condor Golden toad Columbia has lost one-third of its forest Black lion tamarin SOUTH AMERICA More than 60% of the Pacific Northwest coastal forest has been cut down 40% of North America’s range and cropland has lost productivity Hawaiian monk seal Half of the forest in Honduras and Nicaragua has disappeared Mangroves cleared in Equador for shrimp ponds Southern Chile’s rain forest is threatened Little of Brazil’s Atlantic forest remains Every year 14,000 square kilometers of rain forest is destroyed in the Amazon Basin Coral reef destruction Much of Everglades National Park has dried out and lost 90% of its wading birds ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN Manatee Chesapeake Bay is overfished and polluted Fish catch in the north-west Atlantic has fallen 42% since its peak in 1973 Humpback whale St. Lawrence beluga whale Eastern cougar Florida panther Environmental degradation Vanishing biodiversity Endangered species 6.0 or more children per woman

24 Natural Resource Depletion; Old World EUROPE Mediterranean Liberia AFRICA Imperial eagle 640,000 square kilometers south of the Sahara have turned to desert since 1940 Mali Burkina Faso Sierra Leone Togo Sao Tome 68% of the Congo’s rain forest is slated for cleaning Fish catches in Southeast Atlantic have dropped by more than 50% since 1973 Black rhinoceros Zambia Angola Congo Rwanda Burundi Uganda Somalia Nigeria Chad Niger Benin Golden tamarin Ethiopia Eritrea Madagascar has lost 66% of its tropical forest Aye-aye Yemen Oman Saudi Arabia Poland is one of the world’s most polluted countries Many parts of former Soviet Union are polluted with industrial and radio- active waste Area of Aral Sea has Shrunk 46% Central Asia from the Middle East to China has lost 72% of range and cropland ASIA Asian elephant India and Sri Lanka have almost no rain forest left In peninsular Malaysia almost all forests have been cut INDIAN OCEAN Indonesia’s coral reefs are threatened and mangrove forests have been cut in half Giant panda Kouprey Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing butterfly Nail-tailed wallaby AUSTALIA Much of Australia’s range and cropland have turned to desert 90% of the coral reefs are threatened in the Philippines. All virgin forest will be gone by 2010 Deforestation in the Himalaya causes flooding in Bangladesh Japanese timber imports are responsible for much of the world’s tropical deforestation Blue whale ANTARCTICA A thinning of the ozone layer occurs over Antarctica during summer Snow leopard


26 Ecological Pyramids

27 Primary Productivity of Ecosystems  Gross primary productivity (GPP)  Net primary productivity (NPP)

28 Community Structure: Appearance and Species Diversity  Stratification  Species diversity  Species abundance  Niche structure  Edge effects

29 Primary Succession

30 Secondary Succession

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