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Chapter 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?

2 The Earth’s Life-Support Systems  Atmosphere  Hydrosphere  geosphere  Biosphere Atmosphere Vegetation and animals Soil Rock Biosphere Crust core Mantle Lithosphere Crust Lithosphere (crust, top of upper mantle) Hydrosphere (water) Atmosphere (air) Biosphere (Living and dead organisms) Crust (soil and rock) Fig. 3-6

3 Species=A group of sexually reproducing organisms. Set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring. Genetic diversity

4 Ecological and Species Diversity Habitat?

5 Some Levels of Organization of Matter in Nature 3-3

6 Population, community, ecosystem?

7 Science Focus: Have You Thanked the Insects Today? Many plant species depend on insects for pollination. Insect can control other pest insects by eating them Figure 3-1

8 Ecosystem Boundaries: Ecotones Land zoneTransition zoneAquatic zone Number of species Species in land zone Species in aquatic zone Species in transition zone only

9 Go to chp. 7 rainforest animation

10 The Biotic Components of Ecosystems  Producers (autotrophs)  Photosynthesis  Consumers (heterotrophs)  Aerobic respiration  Decomposers Heat Abiotic chemicals (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, minerals) Producers(plants)Decomposers (bacteria, fungus) Consumers(herbivores,Carnivores,omnivores) Solar energy Fig. 3.12

11 Producers: Basic Source of All Food Most producers capture sunlight to produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis:

12 Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration: Getting Energy for Survival Organisms break down carbohydrates and other organic compounds in their cells to obtain the energy they need. This is usually done through aerobic respiration. –The opposite of photosynthesis

13 Connections: Food Chains and Energy Flow in Ecosystems Fig Ecological efficiency=10% Loss?

14 Humans Blue whaleSperm whale Crabeater seal Killer whale Elephant seal Leopard seal Adélie penguins Petrel Fish Squid Carnivorous plankton Krill Phytoplankton Herbivorous zooplankton Emperor penguin Food web Fig 3-14

15 Photosynthesis Sun Net primary production (energy available to consumers) Growth and reproduction Respiration Energy lost and unavailable to consumers Gross primary production

16 What are nature’s three most productive and three least productive systems? Figure 3-16

17 Principles of Ecological Factors  Abiotic factors  Biotic factors  Law of tolerance  Limiting factors Population size LowHighTemperature Zone of intolerance Zone of physiological stress Optimum range Zone of physiological stress Zone of intolerance No organisms Few organisms Lower limit of tolerance Abundance of organisms Few organisms No organisms Upper limit of tolerance Fig. 3-10

18 Fig. 3-8, Absorbed by ozone Visible Light Absorbed by the earth Greenhouse effect UV radiation Solar radiation Energy in = Energy out Reflected by atmosphere (34% ) Radiated by atmosphere as heat (66%) Heat radiated by the earth Heat Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (ozone layer) Greenhouse Effect-natural

19 Hydrologic (Water) Cycle Fig Clearing vegetation Use large amounts of water

20 The Carbon Cycle (Terrestrial) photosynthesis aerobic respiration Terrestrial rocks Soil water (dissolved carbon) Land food webs producers, consumers, decomposers, detritivores Atmosphere (mainly carbon dioxide) Peat, fossil fuels combustion of wood (for clearing land; or for fuel sedimentation volcanic action death, burial, compaction over geologic time leaching runoff weathering Fig Interactivity- #11 Global warming- carbon dioxide

21 The Carbon Cycle (Aquatic) diffusion between atmosphere and ocean Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean water Marine food webs producers, consumers, decomposers, detritivores Marine sediments, including formations with fossil fuels combustion of fossil fuels incorporation into sediments death, sedimentation uplifting over geologic time sedimentation photosynthesis aerobic respiration Fig. 3.18

22 The Sulfur Cycle Acid Rain: Makes plants and animals vulnerable to drought and pests. Coal and industry sources 3-22

23 Biomes-Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation and distinctive animals. Most important factor influence: climate Desert Tundra Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tropical Rainforest Mid-latitude Grasslands Tropical Savanna Grasslands Chaparrel or Mediterranean Sclerophyllous Woodland

24 Information on biomes Chapter 7 has maps( shows you where your biomes are located Fig 7-8 and discusses biomes. The web- Search for pictures and more information Goodwill magazines- Redondo and Anaheim Poster board one per group and other supplies- Target or bookstore. Scissors, glue, markers, poster board. Worth 25 points. –15 points poster, 10 points notes on other biomes Extra credit available

25 The Earth’s Major Biomes 7-8


27 Chp. 7 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Wood frog Racer May beetle Bacteria Fungi Long-tailed weasel Shagbark hickory Mountain Winterberry Metallic wood-boring beetle and Larvae White-tailed deer White-footed mouse Gray Squirrel Hairy Woodpecker White oak Broad-winged hawk


29 Evelyn Hutchinson The Earth’s thin film of living matter is sustained by grand scale cycles of energy and chemical elements End chapter 3

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