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Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?

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1 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?
Chapter 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?

2 The Earth’s Life-Support Systems
Atmosphere Vegetation and animals Soil Rock Biosphere Crust core Mantle Lithosphere (crust, top of upper mantle) Hydrosphere (water) (air) (Living and dead organisms) (soil and rock) Atmosphere Hydrosphere geosphere Biosphere Fig. 3-6

3 Species=A group of sexually reproducing organisms
Species=A group of sexually reproducing organisms. Set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring. Genetic diversity

4 Ecological and Species Diversity

5 Some Levels of Organization of Matter in Nature

6 Population, community, ecosystem?

7 Science Focus: Have You Thanked the Insects Today?
Many plant species depend on insects for pollination. Insect can control other pest insects by eating them Figure 3-1

8 Ecosystem Boundaries: Ecotones
Land zone Transition zone Aquatic zone Number of species Species in land zone Species in aquatic zone Species in transition zone only Ecotone- transition area. Examples swamp/wetlands between dry land and ocean.

9 Go to chp. 7 rainforest animation

10 The Biotic Components of Ecosystems
Producers (autotrophs) Heat Abiotic chemicals (carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, minerals) Producers (plants) Decomposers (bacteria, fungus) Consumers (herbivores, Carnivores,omnivores) Solar energy Photosynthesis Consumers (heterotrophs) Photosynthesis- co2+water+sun and produce o2 and growth. Producers- plants- make their own food. From photosysnthesis Consumer- Consume other organisms. Aerobic respiration Decomposers Fig. 3.12

11 Producers: Basic Source of All Food
Most producers capture sunlight to produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis:

12 Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration: Getting Energy for Survival
Organisms break down carbohydrates and other organic compounds in their cells to obtain the energy they need. This is usually done through aerobic respiration. The opposite of photosynthesis

13 Connections: Food Chains and Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Sequence of organisms-each is a food for the next. Ecological efficiency=10% Loss? Fig. 3-13

14 Food web Fig 3-14 Several different food chains. Overlapping feeding.
Humans Food web Blue whale Sperm whale Killer whale Elephant seal Crabeater seal Leopard seal Emperor penguin Adélie penguins Petrel Fig 3-14 Squid Several different food chains. Overlapping feeding. Fish Carnivorous plankton Herbivorous zooplankton Krill Phytoplankton

15 and unavailable to consumers Respiration
Sun Photosynthesis Energy lost and unavailable to consumers Respiration Gross primary production Net primary production (energy available to consumers) Figure 3.21 Natural capital: distinction between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity. A plant uses some of its gross primary productivity to survive through respiration. The remaining energy is available to consumers. Growth and reproduction

16 What are nature’s three most productive and three least productive systems?
Figure 3-16

17 Principles of Ecological Factors
Abiotic factors Law of tolerance Biotic factors Limiting factors Population size Low High Temperature Zone of intolerance physiological stress Optimum range No organisms Few Lower limit of tolerance Abundance of organisms Upper limit Minimum and maximum ranges that species can survive. Law of tolerance existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in a ecosystem are determined by factors that can be tolerated by the species. Limiting factors can be a variety of things. Food, water, soil nutrients Abiotic- non living- water, nutrients, minerals. Fig. 3-10

18 Greenhouse Effect-natural
Solar radiation Energy in = Energy out Reflected by atmosphere (34% ) Radiated by atmosphere as heat (66%) UV radiation Lower Stratosphere (ozone layer) Absorbed by ozone Troposphere Greenhouse effect Visible Light Figure 3.8 Solar capital: flow of energy to and from the earth. Heat Absorbed by the earth Heat radiated by the earth Fig. 3-8,

19 Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
Clearing vegetation Use large amounts of water Fig. 3-17

20 The Carbon Cycle (Terrestrial)
Atmosphere (mainly carbon dioxide) volcanic action combustion of wood (for clearing land; or for fuel Terrestrial rocks photosynthesis aerobic respiration sedimentation weathering Land food webs producers, consumers, decomposers, detritivores Soil water (dissolved carbon) Global warming- carbon dioxide Peat, fossil fuels death, burial, compaction over geologic time leaching runoff Interactivity- #11 Fig. 3-18

21 The Carbon Cycle (Aquatic)
diffusion between atmosphere and ocean combustion of fossil fuels Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean water photosynthesis aerobic respiration Marine food webs producers, consumers, decomposers, detritivores incorporation into sediments death, sedimentation uplifting over geologic time sedimentation Marine sediments, including formations with fossil fuels Fig. 3.18

22 The Sulfur Cycle 3-22 Coal and industry sources
Acid Rain: Makes plants and animals vulnerable to drought and pests. 3-22

23 Mid-latitude Grasslands Tropical Savanna Grasslands
Biomes-Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation and distinctive animals. Most important factor influence: climate Desert Tundra Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tropical Rainforest Mid-latitude Grasslands Tropical Savanna Grasslands Chaparrel or Mediterranean Sclerophyllous Woodland

24 Information on biomes Chapter 7 has maps( shows you where your biomes are located Fig 7-8 and discusses biomes. The web- Search for pictures and more information Goodwill magazines- Redondo and Anaheim Poster board one per group and other supplies- Target or bookstore. Scissors, glue, markers, poster board. Worth 25 points. –15 points poster, 10 points notes on other biomes Extra credit available

25 The Earth’s Major Biomes


27 Broad-winged hawk Hairy Woodpecker Gray Squirrel White oak White-footed mouse Metallic wood-boring beetle and Larvae White-tailed deer Mountain Winterberry Shagbark hickory May beetle Racer Long-tailed weasel Fungi Bacteria Wood frog Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Chp. 7


29 Evelyn Hutchinson The Earth’s thin film of living matter is sustained by grand scale cycles of energy and chemical elements End chapter 3

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