Presentation on theme: "What is Ecology ? The study of how organisms interact with one another and their non-living environment."— Presentation transcript:
1 What is Ecology ?The study of how organisms interact with one another and their non-living environment
2 So Then What is an Ecosystem ? BiosphereEcosystemsCommunitiesPopulationsOrganismsAn ecosystem is how all of the living and non-living things interact together in an area.
3 So Then What is an Ecosystem ? BiosphereEcosystemsCommunitiesPopulationsOrganismsLooking at the chart to the right..Our BIOSPHERE is the part of the Earth where the organisms existAnd an ECOSYSTEM is that area where the living and non-living things interact.
4 Energy for the Ecosystems A. Every ecosystem on Earth gets its energy from the same source:SUNLIGHT!!!
5 ProducersOrganisms that can use sunlight or chemical energy to produce food are called: autotrophs
6 ProducersPhotosynthesis: most common, uses energy from sunlight to make foodExample: Plants, sea weed, algae
7 ProducersChemosynthesis: uses energy form inorganic chemical compounds to make foodExample: Sulfur bacteria in Yellowstone hot springs & deep sea hydrothermal vents
8 Producers Autotrophs are also called producers Producers/Autotrophs: use energy to build complex organic molecules out of inorganic molecules
9 ProducersDescribe the flow of energy through an ecosystem: It goes in one direction from sun producers consumers
10 An ecosystem contains BIOTIC (living) and ABIOTIC (non-living) things Parts of an EcosystemAn ecosystem contains BIOTIC (living) and ABIOTIC (non-living) thingsExamples of BIOTIC things:• Plants• Animals• Fungi• Bacteria
11 Parts of an Ecosystem Examples of ABIOTIC things are: • Water • Air An Ecosystem is made of BIOTIC and ABIOTIC ComponentsABIOTIC components are the NON-living parts of the ecosystemExamples of ABIOTIC things are:• Water• Air• Temperature• Sunlight
12 Food ChainA Food Chain tells us what eats what in an ecosystem. It shows the series of organisms through which food energy is passed.
13 Food Chain What is happening in this food chain? The insect is eaten by the frog
14 Food Chain What does the insect eat? Many insects eat the nectar from flowers
16 Food Chain What does this entire food chain show? 1) The slug eats the plant2) The frog eats the slug3) The heron eats the frog
17 Food Chain The arrow means “is eaten by” In this case the dragonfly is eaten by the frog.
18 Food Chain Remember… ALL food chains begin with a Producer ( Also known as an Autotroph)
19 Food Web In an ecosystem, there are many producers and consumers. Instead of a food chain, we can use a food web.
20 Food WebHumansBlue whaleSperm whaleCrabeater sealKillerwhaleElephantsealLeopardAdéliepenguinsPetrelFishSquidCarnivorous planktonKrillPhytoplanktonHerbivorouszooplanktonEmperorpenguinA food web shows the complex relationship formed by the overlapping and interconnecting food chains.
21 Energy Pyramid Steps in a food chain are called: Trophic Levels. A Trophic Level is a level of nourishment in a food chain.
22 Energy Pyramid The pyramid first shows us the Producers. Remember… Producers get their energy from the sun.Producers are the first and largest Trophic Level.Producers
23 Energy Pyramid Second, we see the Primary Consumers The Primary Consumers get their energy from eating the Producers.Primary Consumers can be either Herbivores or Omnivores.Primary Consumers
24 Energy Pyramid Third, we see the Secondary Consumers The Secondary Consumers get their energy from eating the Primary ConsumersSecondary Consumers are Carnivores or OmnivoresSecondary Consumers
25 Energy Pyramid Fourth, we see the Tertiary Consumers The Tertiary Consumers get their energy from eating the Secondary ConsumersTertiary Consumers are Carnivores or OmnivoresTertiary Consumers
26 Some energy pyramids can have a fifth Trophic Level.
27 Primary ProducersProducers make their own food, from abiotic factors, such as sunlight or heat from chemical reactions.
28 Producers are also known as Autotrophs Primary ProducersProducers are also known as AutotrophsSome examples are:• Plants• Algae• Bacteria
29 ConsumersConsumers are organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms
30 Consumers are also known as Heterotrophs Consumers can be:• Herbivores• Carnivores• Omnivores• Detritivores (Decomposers)
31 Consumers Herbivores eat only plants. Herbivores are also known as Heterotrophs or Primary ConsumersHerbivore Examples:• Large Mammals (Such as cattle & deer)• Insects
32 Carnivores eat other animals ConsumersCarnivores eat other animalsCarnivores are also known as Heterotrophs or Secondary or Tertiary ConsumersCarnivore Examples:• Lions, Tigers• Wolves• Sharks• Snakes
33 Consumers Omnivores eat both plants and animals Omnivores are also known as Heterotrophs or ConsumersOmnivore Examples:• Humans• Bears• Mice• Pigs
34 Detritivores convert waste into nutrients (also called decomposers) ConsumersDetritivores convert waste into nutrients (also called decomposers)Detritivore Examples:• Worms• Beetles• Bacteria• Fungi
35 ConsumersScavengers break down dead plants and animals (also called heterotroph, consumer)Scavenger Examples:• Vulture• Crow• Hyena
36 Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Energy pyramids: Are a way to graph how much energy is passed up the food chain from one organism to the next
37 Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Only 10% of the energy from the prior trophic level is passed on.This is because energy is lost to the environment as heat
39 Energy PyramidIf an energy pyramid consists of plants that contain 500,000 calories of food energy, how many calories of energy would be available to consumers at each of the next three trophic levels?Trophic levelPrimary producersTertiary consumersSecondary consumersPrimary consumers
40 Energy Pyramid Primary Consumers: Secondary Consumers: 500,000 cal x .1 = 50,000 caloriesSecondary Consumers:50,000 cal x .1 = 5,000 caloriesTertiary Consumers:5,000 cal x .1 = 500 caloriesTrophic levelPrimary producersTertiary consumersSecondary consumersPrimary consumers
41 What does these energy numbers tell us?? Food WebWhat does these energy numbers tell us??There are very few Tertiary consumers, because it takes a HUGE amount of food energy to support them.For a large population to exist, it needs to feed from the LOWEST trophic level possible, because there is more food energy available.Trophic levelPrimary producersTertiary consumersSecondary consumersPrimary consumers
42 Besides the energy pyramid, we can also have pyramids of: Other Pyramid typesBesides the energy pyramid, we can also have pyramids of:NumbersBiomass
43 Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Biomass PyramidRepresents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level.
44 Pyramid of NumbersShows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
46 Pyramid of NumbersA pyramid of numbers reflects the number of species at each trophic level.For example: if we look at a forest, there may be few rose bushes, but many insects that feed on the rose bushes, with a pyramid like the one below.
47 For example: Looking at the same forest, the biomass is great. Pyramid of BiomassA pyramid of biomass reflects the total amount of living tissue at each trophic level.For example: Looking at the same forest, the biomass is great.
48 Sequoia National Park Sequoia Trees Skunks Gray Squirrels Beetles Peregrine FalconsMiceGreat Gray OwlRed tail foxCaterpillarsBatsFence lizardsGrizzly BearBullfrogsFliesCalifornia NewtMountain lions