Presentation on theme: "What is Ecology ? The study of how organisms interact with one another and their non- living environment."— Presentation transcript:
What is Ecology ? The study of how organisms interact with one another and their non- living environment
So Then What is an Ecosystem ? An ecosystem is how all of the living and non-living things interact together in an area. Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms
So Then What is an Ecosystem ? Looking at the chart to the right.. Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Our BIOSPHERE is the part of the Earth where the organisms exist And an ECOSYSTEM is that area where the living and non-living things interact.
Energy for the Ecosystems A. Every ecosystem on Earth gets its energy from the same source: SUNLIGHT!!!
Producers Organisms that can use sunlight or chemical energy to produce food are called: autotrophs
Producers Photosynthesis: most common, uses energy from sunlight to make food Example: Plants, sea weed, algae
Producers Chemosynthesis: uses energy form inorganic chemical compounds to make food Example: Sulfur bacteria in Yellowstone hot springs & deep sea hydrothermal vents
Producers Autotrophs are also called producers Producers/Autotrophs: use energy to build complex organic molecules out of inorganic molecules
Producers Describe the flow of energy through an ecosystem: It goes in one direction from sun producers consumers
Parts of an Ecosystem An ecosystem contains BIOTIC (living) and ABIOTIC (non-living) things Examples of BIOTIC things: Plants Animals Fungi Bacteria
Parts of an Ecosystem An Ecosystem is made of BIOTIC and ABIOTIC Components ABIOTIC components are the NON-living parts of the ecosystem Examples of ABIOTIC things are: Water Air Temperature Sunlight
Food Chain A Food Chain tells us what eats what in an ecosystem. It shows the series of organisms through which food energy is passed.
Food Chain What is happening in this food chain? The insect is eaten by the frog
Food Chain What does the insect eat? Many insects eat the nectar from flowers
Food Chain What might eat the frog?
Food Chain What does this entire food chain show? 1) The slug eats the plant 2) The frog eats the slug 3) The heron eats the frog
Food Chain The arrow means “is eaten by” In this case the dragonfly is eaten by the frog.
Food Chain Remember… ALL food chains begin with a Producer ( Also known as an Autotroph)
Food Web In an ecosystem, there are many producers and consumers. Instead of a food chain, we can use a food web.
Food Web A food web shows the complex relationship formed by the overlapping and interconnecting food chains. Humans Blue whaleSperm whale Crabeater seal Killer whale Elephant seal Leopard seal Adélie penguins Petrel Fish Squid Carnivorous plankton Krill Phytoplankton Herbivorous zooplankton Emperor penguin
Energy Pyramid Steps in a food chain are called: Trophic Levels. A Trophic Level is a level of nourishment in a food chain.
Energy Pyramid The pyramid first shows us the Producers. Remember… Producers get their energy from the sun. Producers are the first and largest Trophic Level. Producers
Energy Pyramid Second, we see the Primary Consumers The Primary Consumers get their energy from eating the Producers. Primary Consumers can be either Herbivores or Omnivores. Primary Consumers
Energy Pyramid Third, we see the Secondary Consumers The Secondary Consumers get their energy from eating the Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers are Carnivores or Omnivores Secondary Consumers
Energy Pyramid Fourth, we see the Tertiary Consumers The Tertiary Consumers get their energy from eating the Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers are Carnivores or Omnivores Tertiary Consumers
Energy Pyramid Some energy pyramids can have a fifth Trophic Level.
Primary Producers Producers make their own food, from abiotic factors, such as sunlight or heat from chemical reactions.
Primary Producers Producers are also known as Autotrophs Some examples are: Plants Algae Bacteria
Consumers Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms
Consumers Consumers are also known as Heterotrophs Consumers can be: Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores (Decomposers)
Consumers Herbivores eat only plants. Herbivore Examples: Large Mammals (Such as cattle & deer) Insects Herbivores are also known as Heterotrophs or Primary Consumers
Consumers Carnivores eat other animals Carnivore Examples: Lions, Tigers Wolves Sharks Snakes Carnivores are also known as Heterotrophs or Secondary or Tertiary Consumers
Consumers Omnivores eat both plants and animals Omnivore Examples: Humans Bears Mice Pigs Omnivores are also known as Heterotrophs or Consumers
Consumers Detritivores convert waste into nutrients (also called decomposers) Detritivore Examples: Worms Beetles Bacteria Fungi
Consumers Scavengers break down dead plants and animals (also called heterotroph, consumer) Scavenger Examples: Vulture Crow Hyena
Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Energy pyramids: Are a way to graph how much energy is passed up the food chain from one organism to the next
Energy Pyramid Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer. Only 10% of the energy from the prior trophic level is passed on. This is because energy is lost to the environment as heat
Draw an Energy Pyramid
Energy Pyramid If an energy pyramid consists of plants that contain 500,000 calories of food energy, how many calories of energy would be available to consumers at each of the next three trophic levels? Trophic level Primary producers Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers
Energy Pyramid Primary Consumers: Trophic level Primary producers Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Secondary Consumers: Tertiary Consumers: 500,000 cal x.1 = 50,000 calories 50,000 cal x.1 = 5,000 calories 5,000 cal x.1 = 500 calories
Food Web What does these energy numbers tell us?? Trophic level Primary producers Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers 1)There are very few Tertiary consumers, because it takes a HUGE amount of food energy to support them. 2)For a large population to exist, it needs to feed from the LOWEST trophic level possible, because there is more food energy available.
Other Pyramid types Besides the energy pyramid, we can also have pyramids of: 1)Numbers 2)Biomass
Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level.
Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
Draw a Pyramid of Numbers
Pyramid of Numbers A pyramid of numbers reflects the number of species at each trophic level. For example: if we look at a forest, there may be few rose bushes, but many insects that feed on the rose bushes, with a pyramid like the one below.
Pyramid of Biomass A pyramid of biomass reflects the total amount of living tissue at each trophic level. For example: Looking at the same forest, the biomass is great.
Sequoia National Park Sequoia Trees Gray Squirrels Peregrine Falcons Great Gray Owl Caterpillars Fence lizards Bullfrogs California Newt Mountain lions Skunks Beetles Mice Red tail fox Bats Grizzly Bear Flies