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Biosphere Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Oxygen cycle

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Presentation on theme: "Biosphere Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Oxygen cycle"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biosphere Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Oxygen cycle Phosphorus cycle Heat in the environment Heat Heat Heat

2 Oxygen (O2) Sun Producer Carbon dioxide (CO2) Secondary consumer (fox) Primary consumer (rabbit) Producers Falling leaves and twigs Precipitation Soil decomposers Water Soluble mineral nutrients

3 The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

4 Figure 19-10 Page 494 Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides
Coal strip mine runoff Pumping well Waste lagoon Accidental spills Groundwater flow Confined aquifer Discharge Leakage from faulty casing Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Gasoline station Buried gasoline and solvent tank Sewer Cesspool septic tank De-icing road salt Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Water pumping well Landfill Figure Page 494

5 Carbon Cycle

6 Nitrogen Cycle

7 Nitrogenous Wastes, Remains In Soil NO3 – in soil Denitrification
© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Gaseous Nitrogen (N2) In Atmosphere Nitrogen Fixation by industry for agriculture Food Webs On Land uptake by autotrophs excretion, death, decomposition uptake by autotrophs Fertilizers Nitrogen Fixation bacteria convert to ammonia (NH3+) ; this dissolves to form ammonium (NH4+) Nitrogenous Wastes, Remains In Soil NO3 – in soil Denitrification by bacteria Ammonification bacteria, fungi convert the residues to NH3 , this dissolves to form NH4+ 2. Nitrification bacteria convert NO2- to nitrate (NO3-) NH3, NH4+ in soil 1. Nitrification bacteria convert NH4+ to nitrate (NO2–) loss by leaching NO2 – in soil loss by leaching


9 mining FERTILIZER excretion GUANO agriculture weathering uptake by autotrophs uptake by autotrophs MARINE FOOD WEBS DISSOLVED IN OCEAN WATER weathering DISSOLVED IN SOIL WATER, LAKES, RIVERS LAND FOOD WEBS death, decomposition death, decomposition settling out sedimentation weathering uplifting over geolgic time ROCKS MARINE SEDIMENTS

10 Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) + Oxygen (O2) Atmosphere Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Sulfur trioxide (SO3) + Water (H2O) Dimethyl (DMS) Industries Volcanoes and hot springs Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) + Ammonia (NH2) Oceans Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] Fog and precipitation (rain, snow) Animals Plants Sulfate salts (SO42-) Aerobic conditions in soil and water Decaying organisms Sulfur (S) Anaerobic conditions in soil and water Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

11 Example of genetic diversity in the peppered moth, England.

12 Species diversity Harpy eagle Ocelot Blue and gold macaw Producer
to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Squirrel monkeys Climbing monstera palm Secondary to higher-level consumer Katydid Slaty-tailed trogon Green tree snake All producers and consumers to decomposers Tree frog Ants Species diversity Bromeliad Fungi Bacteria

13 Ecological diversity Coastal chaparral and scrub Coniferous forest
Desert Coniferous forest Prairie grassland Deciduous forest Appalachian Mountains Mississippi River Valley Great Plains Rocky Mountains Great American Desert Sierra Nevada Mountains Coastal mountain ranges 15,000 ft 10,000 ft 5,000 ft Average annual precipitation cm (40-50 in.) cm (30-40 in.) 50-75 cm (20-30 in.) 25-50 cm (10-20 in.) Below 25 cm (0-10 in.) Ecological diversity

14 Diversifying Natural Selection
Intermediate-colored snails are selected against Snails with light and dark colors dominate Natural selection Light coloration is favored Dark coloration is favored Number of individuals Number of individuals Coloration of snails Coloration of snails Number of individuals with light and dark coloration increases, and the number with intermediate coloration decreases

15 Span worm Wandering leaf insect Bombardier beetle Foul-tasting monarch butterfly Poison dart frog Viceroy butterfly mimics monarch butterfly When touched, the snake caterpillar changes shape to look like the head of a snake Hind wings of io moth resemble eyes of a much larger animal

16 Niche separation Number of individuals Generalist species with a broad niche Generalist species with a narrow niche Niche breadth Region of niche overlap Resource use

17 Many generalist species have a range of conditions within which they can live, but may prefer or survive best in a particular environment. Population Size Low High Temperature Zone of intolerance physiological stress Optimum range No organisms Few Lower limit of tolerance Abundance of organisms Upper limit

18 Effects of being a generalist vs a specialist species.

19 Ten major global terrestrial biomes.


21 Primary succession Balsam fir, paper birch, and white spruce
Exposed rocks Lichens and mosses Balsam fir, paper birch, and white spruce climax community Jack pine, black spruce, and aspen Small herbs and shrubs Heath mat Time

22 Secondary succession Mature oak-hickory forest Young pine forest
Perennial weeds and grasses Shrubs Annual weeds Time


24 Arctic Circle 60° EUROPE NORTH AMERICA ASIA 30°N Tropic of Cancer Atlantic Ocean AFRICA Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean 150° 120° 90° 30°W 60°E 90° 150° SOUTH AMERICA Indian Ocean Tropic of Capricorn AUSTRALIA 30°S 60° Antarctic Circle ANTARCTICA Critical and endangered Threatened Stable or intact Projected Status of Biodiversity 1998–2018

25 Habitat loss Habitat degradation Overfishing Basic Causes Introducing nonnative species Climate change Population growth Rising resource use No environmental accounting Poverty Commercial hunting and poaching Pollution Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants Predator and pest control

26 The Species Approach The Ecosystem Approach Goal Goal Protect species from premature extinction Protect populations of species in their natural habitats Strategies Strategy Identify endangered species Protect their critical habitats Preserve sufficient areas of habitats in different biomes and aquatic systems Tactics Tactics Legally protect endangered species Manage habitat Propagate endangered species in captivity Reintroduce species into suitable habitats Protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areas Manage protected areas to sustain native species Restore degraded ecosystems


28 Kudzu, here in western Georgia, was introduced from Japan in 1876.

29 1918 Expansion of the fire ant in southern states. 2000

30 Characteristics of Successful Invader Species Characteristics of Ecosystems Vulnerable to Invader Species High reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species) Pioneer species Long lived High dispersal rate Release growth- inhibiting chemicals into soil Generalists High genetic variability Similar climate to habitat of invader Absence of predators on invading species Early successional species Low diversity of native species Absence of fire Disturbed by human activities

31 Environmental degradation
Grizzly bear NORTH AMERICA Spotted owl Black- footed ferret Kemp’s ridley turtle California condor Golden toad Columbia has lost one-third of its forest Black lion tamarin SOUTH More than 60% of the Pacific Northwest coastal forest has been cut down 40% of North America’s range and cropland has lost productivity Hawaiian monk seal Half of the forest in Honduras and Nicaragua has disappeared Mangroves cleared in Equador for shrimp ponds Southern Chile’s rain forest is threatened Little of Brazil’s Atlantic forest remains Every year 14,000 square kilometers of rain forest is destroyed in the Amazon Basin Coral reef destruction Much of Everglades National Park has dried out and lost 90% of its wading birds ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC Manatee Chesapeake Bay is overfished and polluted Fish catch in the north-west Atlantic has fallen 42% since its peak in 1973 Humpback whale St. Lawrence beluga whale Eastern cougar Florida panther Environmental degradation Vanishing biodiversity Endangered species 6.0 or more children per woman

32 Many parts of former Soviet Union are polluted with industrial and radio- active waste ASIA Poland is one of the world’s most polluted countries Central Asia from the Middle East to China has lost 72% of range and cropland Imperial eagle Giant panda EUROPE Japanese timber imports are responsible for much of the world’s tropical deforestation Area of Aral Sea has Shrunk 46% Snow leopard Mediterranean 640,000 square kilometers south of the Sahara have turned to desert since 1940 Saudi Arabia Asian elephant Deforestation in the Himalaya causes flooding in Bangladesh Liberia Oman Kouprey Mali AFRICA Eritrea Yemen 90% of the coral reefs are threatened in the Philippines. All virgin forest will be gone by 2010 Burkina Faso India and Sri Lanka have almost no rain forest left Niger Benin Ethiopia Chad Golden tamarin Sierra Leone Nigeria Togo Congo Rwanda Burundi Uganda Sao Tome Somalia In peninsular Malaysia almost all forests have been cut 68% of the Congo’s rain forest is slated for cleaning Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing butterfly Angola Indonesia’s coral reefs are threatened and mangrove forests have been cut in half Zambia INDIAN OCEAN Nail-tailed wallaby Fish catches in Southeast Atlantic have dropped by more than 50% since 1973 Aye-aye AUSTALIA Black rhinoceros Madagascar has lost 66% of its tropical forest Much of Australia’s range and cropland have turned to desert Blue whale A thinning of the ozone layer occurs over Antarctica during summer ANTARCTICA


34 Arithmetic density of world’s population.

35 Physiologic or nutritional density.

36 Linear Growth Population Size Time

37 K Population size (N) Population size (N) Time (t) Time (t)
© 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning K Population size (N) Population size (N) Time (t) Time (t) Exponential Growth Logistic Growth

38 Malthus’s theory compared to actual food & population rates.

39 Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

40 Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

41 Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

42 Crude Death Rate (CDR)

43 Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

44 Life Expectancy at Birth

45 Population (2002) Population projected (2025) Infant mortality rate
United States (highly developed) 288 million 174 million Brazil (moderately developed) 130 million Nigeria (less developed) Population projected (2025) 346 million 219 million 205 million Infant mortality rate 6.8 33 75 Life expectancy 77 years 69 years 52 years Fertility rate (TFR) 2.1 2.2 5.8 %Population under age 15 21% 33% 44% % Population over age 65 13% 5% 3% Per capita GNI PPP (2000) $34,100 $7,300 $800 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

46 One type of Demographic Transition Model

47 Population (millions) © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning
Developing Countries 85+ 80-85 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Male Female Age 300 200 100 100 200 300 Population (millions) © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

48 Population pyramids showing different rates of growth.


50 Number of workers supporting each Social Security beneficiary
An example of the dependency rate. 1945 41.9 workers 40 30 Number of workers supporting each Social Security beneficiary 20 1950 16.5 10 2075 1.9 1945 2000 2050 2075 Year

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