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Biosphere Carbon cycle Phosphorus cycle Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Oxygen cycle Heat in the environment Heat.

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Presentation on theme: "Biosphere Carbon cycle Phosphorus cycle Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Oxygen cycle Heat in the environment Heat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biosphere Carbon cycle Phosphorus cycle Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Oxygen cycle Heat in the environment Heat

2 Sun Producer Precipitation Falling leaves and twigs Producers Primary consumer (rabbit) Secondary consumer (fox) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Oxygen (O 2 ) Water Soil decomposers Soluble mineral nutrients

3 The Hydrologic (Water) Cycle

4 Figure Page 494 Coal strip mine runoff Pumping well Waste lagoon Accidental spills Groundwater flow Confined aquifer Discharge Leakage from faulty casing Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Gasoline station Buried gasoline and solvent tank Sewer Cesspool septic tank De-icing road salt Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Water pumping well Landfil l

5 Carbon Cycle

6 Nitrogen Cycle

7 NO 3 – in soil Nitrogen Fixation by industry for agriculture Fertilizers Food Webs On Land NH 3, NH 4 + in soil 1. Nitrification bacteria convert NH 4 + to nitrate (NO 2 – ) loss by leaching uptake by autotrophs excretion, death, decomposition uptake by autotrophs Nitrogen Fixation bacteria convert to ammonia (NH 3 + ) ; this dissolves to form ammonium (NH 4 + ) loss by leaching Ammonification bacteria, fungi convert the residues to NH 3, this dissolves to form NH Nitrification bacteria convert NO 2 - to nitrate (NO 3 - ) Denitrification by bacteria Nitrogenous Wastes, Remains In Soil Gaseous Nitrogen (N 2 ) In Atmosphere NO 2 – in soil © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning


9 GUANO FERTILIZER ROCKS LAND FOOD WEBS DISSOLVED IN OCEAN WATER MARINE FOOD WEBS MARINE SEDIMENTS weathering agriculture uptake by autotrophs death, decomposition sedimentation settling out weathering DISSOLVED IN SOIL WATER, LAKES, RIVERS uptake by autotrophs death, decomposition uplifting over geolgic time mining excretion

10 Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) + Water (H 2 O) Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) Dimethyl (DMS) Industries Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Oceans + Ammonia (NH 2 ) + Oxygen (O 2 ) Ammonium sulfate [(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ] Animals Plants Sulfate salts (SO 4 2- ) Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) Decaying organisms Sulfur (S) Fog and precipitation (rain, snow) Aerobic conditions in soil and water Anaerobic conditions in soil and water Volcanoes and hot springs Atmosphere

11 Example of genetic diversity in the peppered moth, England.

12 Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers Fungi Bacteria Bromeliad Ants Tree frog Green tree snake Katydid Climbing monstera palm Squirrel monkeys Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Slaty-tailed trogon Slaty-tailed trogon Species diversity

13 15,000 ft 10,000 ft 5,000 ft Coastal mountain ranges Sierra Nevada Mountains Great American Desert Rocky Mountains Great Plains Mississippi River Valley Appalachian Mountains Coastal chaparral and scrub Desert Coniferous forest Coniferous forest Prairie grassland Deciduous forest Average annual precipitation cm (40-50 in.) cm (30-40 in.) cm (20-30 in.) cm (10-20 in.) Below 25 cm (0-10 in.) Ecological diversity

14 Number of individuals with light and dark coloration increases, and the number with intermediate coloration decreases Coloration of snails Number of individuals Snails with light and dark colors dominate Diversifying Natural Selection Coloration of snails Number of individuals Light coloration is favored Dark coloration is favored Intermediate-colored snails are selected against Natural selection

15 Span worm Bombardier beetle Viceroy butterfly mimics monarch butterfly Foul-tasting monarch butterfly Poison dart frog When touched, the snake caterpillar changes shape to look like the head of a snake Wandering leaf insect Hind wings of io moth resemble eyes of a much larger animal

16 Region of niche overlap Generalist species with a broad niche Generalist species with a narrow niche Niche breadth Niche separation Number of individuals Resource use

17 Population Size LowHighTemperature Zone of intolerance Zone of physiological stress Optimum range Zone of physiological stress Zone of intolerance No organisms Few organisms Lower limit of tolerance Abundance of organisms Few organisms No organisms Upper limit of tolerance Many generalist species have a range of conditions within which they can live, but may prefer or survive best in a particular environment.

18 Effects of being a generalist vs a specialist species. (Specialist) (Generalist)

19 Ten major global terrestrial biomes.


21 Time Small herbs and shrubs Heath mat Jack pine, black spruce, and aspen Balsam fir, paper birch, and white spruce climax community Exposed rocks Lichens and mosses Primary succession

22 Time Annual weeds Perennial weeds and grasses Shrubs Young pine forest Mature oak-hickory forest Secondary succession


24 Projected Status of Biodiversity 1998–2018 Critical and endangeredThreatenedStable or intact ANTARCTICA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean Antarctic Circle Pacific Ocean Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean 150°90°60°E0°30°W90°120°150°0° 60° 30°N 30°S 60° Arctic Circle

25 Overfishing Habitat loss Habitat degradation Introducing nonnative species Commercial hunting and poaching Sale of exotic pets and decorative plants Predator and pest control Pollution Climate change Basic Causes Population growth Rising resource use No environmental accounting Poverty

26 The Species ApproachThe Ecosystem Approach Goal Protect species from premature extinction Strategies Identify endangered species Protect their critical habitats Tactics Legally protect endangered species Manage habitat Propagate endangered species in captivity Reintroduce species into suitable habitats Goal Protect populations of species in their natural habitats Strategy Preserve sufficient areas of habitats in different biomes and aquatic systems Tactics Protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areas Manage protected areas to sustain native species Restore degraded ecosystems


28 Kudzu, here in western Georgia, was introduced from Japan in 1876.

29 Expansion of the fire ant in southern states.

30 Characteristics of Successful Invader Species High reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species) Pioneer species Long lived High dispersal rate Release growth- inhibiting chemicals into soil Generalists High genetic variability Characteristics of Ecosystems Vulnerable to Invader Species Similar climate to habitat of invader Absence of predators on invading species Early successional species Low diversity of native species Absence of fire Disturbed by human activities

31 Grizzly bear NORTH AMERICA Spotted owl Black- footed ferret Kemp’s ridley turtle California condor Golden toad Columbia has lost one-third of its forest Black lion tamarin SOUTH AMERICA More than 60% of the Pacific Northwest coastal forest has been cut down 40% of North America’s range and cropland has lost productivity Hawaiian monk seal Half of the forest in Honduras and Nicaragua has disappeared Mangroves cleared in Equador for shrimp ponds Southern Chile’s rain forest is threatened Little of Brazil’s Atlantic forest remains Every year 14,000 square kilometers of rain forest is destroyed in the Amazon Basin Coral reef destruction Much of Everglades National Park has dried out and lost 90% of its wading birds ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN Manatee Chesapeake Bay is overfished and polluted Fish catch in the north-west Atlantic has fallen 42% since its peak in 1973 Humpback whale St. Lawrence beluga whale Eastern cougar Florida panther Environmental degradation Vanishing biodiversity Endangered species 6.0 or more children per woman

32 EUROPE Mediterranean Liberia AFRICA Imperial eagle 640,000 square kilometers south of the Sahara have turned to desert since 1940 Mali Burkina Faso Sierra Leone Togo Sao Tome 68% of the Congo’s rain forest is slated for cleaning Fish catches in Southeast Atlantic have dropped by more than 50% since 1973 Black rhinoceros Zambia Angola Congo Rwanda Burundi Uganda Somalia Nigeria Chad Niger Benin Golden tamarin Ethiopia Eritrea Madagascar has lost 66% of its tropical forest Aye-aye Yemen Oman Saudi Arabia Poland is one of the world’s most polluted countries Many parts of former Soviet Union are polluted with industrial and radio- active waste Area of Aral Sea has Shrunk 46% Central Asia from the Middle East to China has lost 72% of range and cropland ASIA Asian elephant India and Sri Lanka have almost no rain forest left In peninsular Malaysia almost all forests have been cut INDIAN OCEAN Indonesia’s coral reefs are threatened and mangrove forests have been cut in half Giant panda Kouprey Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing butterfly Nail-tailed wallaby AUSTALIA Much of Australia’s range and cropland have turned to desert 90% of the coral reefs are threatened in the Philippines. All virgin forest will be gone by 2010 Deforestation in the Himalaya causes flooding in Bangladesh Japanese timber imports are responsible for much of the world’s tropical deforestation Blue whale ANTARCTICA A thinning of the ozone layer occurs over Antarctica during summer Snow leopard


34 Arithmetic density of world’s population.

35 Physiologic or nutritional density.

36 Population Size Time Linear Growth

37 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Time (t) Population size (N) K Exponential GrowthLogistic Growth

38 Malthus’s theory compared to actual food & population rates.

39 Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

40 Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

41 Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

42 Crude Death Rate (CDR)

43 Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

44 Life Expectancy at Birth

45 Population (2002) Population projected (2025) Infant mortality rate Life expectancy Fertility rate (TFR) %Population under age 15 % Population over age 65 Per capita GNI PPP (2000) 288 million 174 million 130 million 346 million 219 million 205 million years 69 years 52 years % 33% 44% 13% 5% 3% $34,100 $7,300 $800 United States (highly developed) Brazil (moderately developed) Nigeria (less developed) © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

46 One type of Demographic Transition Model

47 MaleFemale Population (millions) Age Developing Countries © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning

48 Population pyramids showing different rates of growth.


50 workers Number of workers supporting each Social Security beneficiary Year An example of the dependency rate.

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