9miningFERTILIZERexcretionGUANOagricultureweatheringuptake by autotrophsuptake by autotrophsMARINE FOOD WEBSDISSOLVED IN OCEAN WATERweatheringDISSOLVED IN SOIL WATER, LAKES, RIVERSLAND FOOD WEBSdeath, decompositiondeath, decompositionsettling outsedimentationweatheringuplifting over geolgic timeROCKSMARINE SEDIMENTS
10Hydrogen sulfide(H2S)+Oxygen (O2)AtmosphereSulfur dioxide (SO2)andSulfur trioxide (SO3)+Water (H2O)Dimethyl(DMS)IndustriesVolcanoesandhot springsSulfuric acid(H2SO4)+Ammonia (NH2)OceansAmmonium sulfate[(NH4)2SO4]Fog and precipitation(rain, snow)AnimalsPlantsSulfate salts(SO42-)Aerobic conditionsin soil and waterDecayingorganismsSulfur(S)Anaerobicconditions insoil and waterHydrogen sulfide(H2S)
11Example of genetic diversity in the peppered moth, England.
12Species diversity Harpy eagle Ocelot Blue and gold macaw Producer to primaryconsumerPrimaryto secondaryconsumerSquirrelmonkeysClimbingmonstera palmSecondary tohigher-levelconsumerKatydidSlaty-tailedtrogonGreen tree snakeAll producers andconsumers todecomposersTree frogAntsSpecies diversityBromeliadFungiBacteria
13Ecological diversity Coastal chaparral and scrub Coniferous forest DesertConiferousforestPrairiegrasslandDeciduousforestAppalachianMountainsMississippiRiver ValleyGreatPlainsRockyMountainsGreatAmericanDesertSierraNevadaMountainsCoastalmountainranges15,000 ft10,000 ft5,000 ftAverage annual precipitationcm (40-50 in.)cm (30-40 in.)50-75 cm (20-30 in.)25-50 cm (10-20 in.)Below 25 cm (0-10 in.)Ecological diversity
14Diversifying Natural Selection Intermediate-colored snailsare selected againstSnails with light and darkcolors dominateNaturalselectionLightcolorationis favoredDarkcolorationis favoredNumber of individualsNumber of individualsColoration of snailsColoration of snailsNumber of individualswith light and dark colorationincreases, and the number withintermediate coloration decreases
15Span wormWandering leaf insectBombardier beetleFoul-tasting monarchbutterflyPoison dart frogViceroy butterfly mimicsmonarch butterflyWhen touched, thesnake caterpillarchanges shape to looklike the head of a snakeHind wings of io mothresemble eyes of amuch larger animal
16NicheseparationNumber of individualsGeneralist specieswith a broad nicheGeneralist specieswith a narrow nicheNichebreadthRegion ofniche overlapResource use
17Many generalist species have a range of conditions within which they can live, but may prefer or survive best in a particular environment.Population SizeLowHighTemperatureZone ofintolerancephysiological stressOptimum rangeNoorganismsFewLower limitof toleranceAbundance of organismsUpper limit
18Effects of being a generalist vs a specialist species.
24Arctic Circle60°EUROPENORTHAMERICAASIA30°NTropic of CancerAtlanticOceanAFRICAPacificOceanPacificOcean0°150°120°90°30°W0°60°E90°150°SOUTHAMERICAIndianOceanTropic of CapricornAUSTRALIA30°S60°Antarctic CircleANTARCTICACritical and endangeredThreatenedStable or intactProjected Status of Biodiversity1998–2018
25HabitatlossHabitatdegradationOverfishingBasic CausesIntroducingnonnativespeciesClimatechangePopulation growthRising resource useNo environmental accountingPovertyCommercialhuntingandpoachingPollutionSale ofexotic petsanddecorativeplantsPredatorandpest control
26The Species ApproachThe Ecosystem ApproachGoalGoalProtect species frompremature extinctionProtect populations ofspecies in their naturalhabitatsStrategiesStrategyIdentify endangered speciesProtect their critical habitatsPreserve sufficient areasof habitats in differentbiomes and aquaticsystemsTacticsTacticsLegally protect endangered speciesManage habitatPropagate endangered species in captivityReintroduce species into suitable habitatsProtect habitat areas through private purchase or government actionEliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areasManage protected areas to sustain native speciesRestore degraded ecosystems
28Kudzu, here in western Georgia, was introduced from Japan in 1876.
291918Expansion of the fire ant in southern states.2000
30Characteristics ofSuccessfulInvader SpeciesCharacteristics ofEcosystems Vulnerableto Invader SpeciesHigh reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species)Pioneer speciesLong livedHigh dispersal rateRelease growth- inhibiting chemicals into soilGeneralistsHigh genetic variabilitySimilar climate to habitat of invaderAbsence of predators on invading speciesEarly successional speciesLow diversity of native speciesAbsence of fireDisturbed by human activities
31Environmental degradation GrizzlybearNORTHAMERICASpottedowlBlack-footedferretKemp’sridleyturtleCaliforniacondorGoldentoadColumbia haslost one-third ofits forestBlack liontamarinSOUTHMore than 60% of thePacific Northwestcoastal forest hasbeen cut down40% of North America’srange and croplandhas lost productivityHawaiianmonk sealHalf of the forestin Honduras andNicaragua hasdisappearedMangrovesclearedin Equador forshrimp pondsSouthernChile’s rainforest isthreatenedLittle of Brazil’sAtlantic forestremainsEvery year 14,000square kilometers ofrain forest is destroyedin the Amazon BasinCoral reef destructionMuch of Everglades National Park has dried outand lost 90% of its wading birdsATLANTICOCEANPACIFICManateeChesapeake Bay is overfished and pollutedFish catch in the north-west Atlantic has fallen42% since its peak in 1973HumpbackwhaleSt. Lawrencebeluga whaleEasterncougarFloridapantherEnvironmental degradationVanishing biodiversityEndangered species6.0 or more childrenper woman
32Many parts offormer Soviet Unionare polluted withindustrial and radio-active wasteASIAPoland is one ofthe world’s mostpolluted countriesCentral Asia from theMiddle East to Chinahas lost 72% of rangeand croplandImperial eagleGiantpandaEUROPEJapanese timber importsare responsible for muchof the world’s tropicaldeforestationArea ofAral Sea hasShrunk 46%Snow leopardMediterranean640,000 square kilometerssouth of the Sahara haveturned to desert since 1940SaudiArabiaAsianelephantDeforestation in the Himalayacauses flooding in BangladeshLiberiaOmanKoupreyMaliAFRICAEritreaYemen90% of the coral reefsare threatened in thePhilippines. All virginforest will be goneby 2010BurkinaFasoIndia andSri Lankahave almostno rainforest leftNigerBeninEthiopiaChadGoldentamarinSierraLeoneNigeriaTogoCongoRwandaBurundiUgandaSao TomeSomaliaIn peninsular Malaysiaalmost all forests havebeen cut68% of theCongo’srain forestis slatedfor cleaningQueen Alexandra’sBirdwing butterflyAngolaIndonesia’scoral reefs arethreatenedandmangroveforestshave beencut in halfZambiaINDIAN OCEANNail-tailedwallabyFish catches inSoutheast Atlantichave dropped by morethan 50% since 1973Aye-ayeAUSTALIABlackrhinocerosMadagascar haslost 66% of itstropical forestMuch ofAustralia’srange andcroplandhave turnedto desertBlue whaleA thinning of the ozone layer occursover Antarctica during summerANTARCTICA
50Number of workers supporting each Social Security beneficiary An example of the dependency rate.194541.9 workers4030Number of workers supportingeach Social Security beneficiary20195016.51020751.91945200020502075Year