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Colonial Colleges 1636-1789. Colonial Colleges Goals: 1. Teach the young Culture 2. Teach the Classics Problem: couldn’t understand Latin 3. Prepare for.

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Presentation on theme: "Colonial Colleges 1636-1789. Colonial Colleges Goals: 1. Teach the young Culture 2. Teach the Classics Problem: couldn’t understand Latin 3. Prepare for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonial Colleges 1636-1789

2 Colonial Colleges Goals: 1. Teach the young Culture 2. Teach the Classics Problem: couldn’t understand Latin 3. Prepare for service (clergy & public servant) In this period college was teaching you to use your mind

3 Colonial Colleges Beginning of Revolutionary War – 9 colleges existed Background on 9 colony colleges By 1646: 200 graduates of Oxford/Cambridge settled in colonies 1636- Harvard Puritan General Court of Massachusetts “Every one shall consider the main end of his life and studies to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal life.” 1693 William and Mary Anglican “piously educated youth of good letters and manners and also propagate Christian faith among the Indians.” 1701-Yale Puritan “Where in youth may be instructed in the arts and sciences, who through the blessings of Almighty God, may be fitted for public employment, both in the church and state.” 1740 – College of Philadelphia Unique-no mention of the training of ministers as a purpose

4 Colonial Colleges Background on 9 colony colleges cont. 1746 – College of New Jersey Calvinists-New Lights 1754-King’s College (New York) Conflict b/w Anglican/Presbyterian 1764 – College of Rhode Island Increase Baptist ministers 1769 – Dartmouth Educate ministers to serve Indians 1770-Queen’s College (New Jersey) Dutch Reform Early colony colleges did not administer religious admissions tests 9 colony colleges founded by cooperation b/w the state and church

5 Colonial Colleges Interesting Tidbits on impact of religion on colonial colleges The main gate at Harvard “Congregational Church desired to breed, bring up, and create in the college successors for the educated ministers that had emigrated from England.” Rhode Island charter: “…sectarian differences of opinions shall not make any part of the public and classical instruction; although all religious controversies may be studied freely, and explained.” King’s College may not “…exclude any person of any religious denomination whatever, from equal liberty and advantage of education.” College of New Jersey provided that “…those of every religious denomination may have free and equal liberty and advantage of education in said college.”

6 Colonial Colleges Colonial Life 17 th Century – 600 students enrolled at Harvard; 485 graduated 1710 – Yale 36 students, Harvard 123 students 1770- Yale 338 students, Harvard 413 students 1776 – 3000 living graduates of colonial colleges 1770- SC newspaper editorializing against founding college in SC “…learning would become cheap and common, every man would be giving his son an education.” Admission requirement for colonial college: oral and written exams in Latin w/president Evidence of character “Admittatur” – granted by the President

7 Colonial Colleges Curriculum Classical languages and literature – core: classical curriculum Year 1: Latin, Greek, logic, Hebrew, rhetoric Year 2: Latin, Greek, Hebrew, natural philosophy Year 3: natural and moral philosophy (economics, ethics, political science, and sociology) Year 4: Latin, Greek, logic, natural philosophy, math Mid 18 th C- Addition of natural sciences, English literature, some modern languages 1738 – Harvard created a physics lab – students studied earthquakes 1749- Yale received a telescope, microscope, and a barometer New sciences did not replace the classical curriculum 1754-Kings College announced a curriculum of “surveying, navigation, geography, commerce, govt. history…of every thing useful…” 1720 Harvard; geometry studied senior year; 1855 admission requirement

8 Colonial Colleges Degrees Harvard awarded 1 st bachelors degree in 1642 9 students received bachelors in 1642 Harvard assumed authority to grant a degree – step toward independence Master’s program: 3 years w/o prescribed course of study

9 Colonial Colleges Faculty and Administration - Medieval times- colleges self governing under the authority of the king or pope - Harvard created a Board of Overseers, consisting of judges and clergy Harvard (1806) – faculty excluded from serving on the corporation, indication that faculty had lost control of Harvard - President of Harvard-only member on Board w/a college background - Yale: Single governing board – Congregational clergy held all seats - Yale changed this model in the mid 18 th C - Colonial college presidents – Administration, may have been the primary teacher, handled all discipline-normally flogging -

10 Colonial Colleges Student Life/Socioeconomic facts 1677-1703: occupations of 300 fathers of students consisted of: 79 ministers; 45 shopkeepers; 35 lawyers/judges; 28 wealthy landowners, military;31 artisans seamen servant; 11 ordinary farmers These #s do not equal 300 but hey don’t shoot the messenger! Typically only the sons of the rich attended college Some members of the lower class did attend college Financial aid existed: students could work and be paid by the more affluent student

11 Colonial Colleges Student life cont. Residential colleges - Oxford and Cambridge had residential colleges - Colonial colleges built dormitories to house students-they were not the living learning centers of the English colleges Religion dominated student life Student Clubs literary societies developed-opportunities for free expression beyond classroom recitation Discipline/rebellion/beer Friction b/w faculty and students, petty rules governing every aspect of life, flogging replaced by fines, loss of privileges, food – an issue, beer served in dining halls until early 1800s

12 Colonial Colleges Reasons for not sending son to college: - Curriculum not aimed at preparing practical people Does a farmer really need to know Hebrew? - Cost required available cash - Distance was a problem - Most families were farmers and could not lose sons - Education was the responsibility of parents College Admittance - oral and written presentations - Yale required evidence of good moral character; 1745- arithmetic - Knowledge of Greek and Latin - As secondary curriculum grew those students who lacked the skills taught at the secondary level studied with a tutor clergyman until prepared for college

13 Colonial Colleges Curriculum - Classics from Cambridge/Oxford Instruction Memorization Latin phased out Evidence of the war b/w practical training and colonial college education or Starbucks conversation: Native Americans response to invitation to send 6 boys to Williamsburg College in the 1770s “We thank you heartily. But you, who are wise, must know that different nations have different conceptions of things…, if our ideas of education happen not to be the same as yours. We have had some experience with it. Several of our young people were formerly brought up at your college; they were instructed in all your sciences; but, whey they came back to us, they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the woods, unable to bear either cold or hunger…take a deer or kill an enemy, spoke our language imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for hunters or warriors, they were totally good for nothing. Though we decline accepting your offer, if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons we will make men of them…”

14 Colonial Colleges That’s it folks!

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