Presentation on theme: "Biology EOC Review Questions 1-13 Science Methods Steps used to solve a problem Observation Questioning and stating problems Hypothesizing Experimenting."— Presentation transcript:
Biology EOC Review
Science Methods Steps used to solve a problem Observation Questioning and stating problems Hypothesizing Experimenting – including a control and experimental group IV – independent variable DV – dependent variable Tables and Graphs IV on x-axis and DV on y-axis of a graph Ex) Effects of pH on Tadpole Survival IV – pH DV-Number of Tadpoles
Section 1.2 Summary – pages In science, a hypothesis that is supported by many separate observations and investigations, usually over a long period of time, becomes a theory. Theories and laws A theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence. In addition to theories, scientists also recognize certain facts of nature, called laws or principles, that are generally known to be true.
Section 2.1 Summary – pages The nonliving parts of an organism’s environment are the abiotic factors. Examples of abiotic factors include air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil. All the living organisms that inhabit an environment are called biotic factors. Examples of biotic factors would be grass, trees, fish, birds, insects and worms.
Ecology Ecology – is the study of interactions between organisms and the environment Levels of Organization Biosphere Biomes Ecosystem Community Population Organism We study an organisms habitat, niche, and trophic level Populations – are members of the same species living in the same place at the same time with the potential to interbreed Population growth – exponential (J-shape) and logistic (S- Shape) * Limited by factors like disease and competition that are density-dependent or by density-independent factors like natural disaster. * Carrying capacity is seen in logistic growth – the maximum number the environment can support Community Interactions * Competition – intraspecific (same species) or interspecific (diff sp) * Symbiosis – parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism * Succession – both primary (bare rock) and secondary (soil) Ecosystem Level – food chains and webs and matter recycling
Section 2.2 Summary – pages Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids The pyramid of energy illustrates that the amount of available energy decreases at each succeeding trophic level. Pyramid of Energy Heat 0.1% Consumers 1% Consumers 10% Consumers 100% Producers Parasites, scavengers, and decomposers feed at each level.
Water Cycle Condensation Precipitation Evaporation Runoff Groundwater Evaporation Transpiration
The Carbon Cycle
Section 3.1 Summary – pages Ranges of tolerance The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance. Limits of Tolerance Organisms absent Organisms infrequent Greatest number of organisms Organisms infrequent Organisms absent Zone of intolerance Zone of Physiological stress Optimum range Lower limitUpper limit Range of tolerance Population Zone of Physiological stress Zone of intolerance
Section 3.2 Summary – pages Freshwater biomes Greatest Warmer layer Colder layer Least Greatest species diversity Oxygen and light penetration
Section 6.1 Summary – pages A covalent bond holds the two hydrogen atoms together. How covalent bonds form A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. It has no overall charge. Water molecule
Section 6.1 Summary – pages A solution is a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent). Mixtures and Solutions Sugar molecules in a powdered drink mix dissolve easily in water to form a solution.
Summary Section 2 – pages Water is Polar A polar molecule is a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge; that is, each molecule has a positive end and a negative end. Water is an example of a polar molecule. Water can dissolve many ionic compounds, such as salt, and many other polar molecules, such as sugar.
Summary Section 2 – pages Water is Polar Water molecules also attract other water molecules. Weak hydrogen bonds are formed between positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged oxygen atoms. Hydrogen atom Oxygen atom
Summary Section 2 – pages Water resists changes in temperature. Therefore, water requires more heat to increase its temperature than do most other common liquids. 2. Water resists temperature changes
Summary Section 2 – pages Water expands when it freezes Water is one of the few substances that expands when it freezes. Ice is less dense than liquid water so it floats as it forms in a body of water.
Biomolecules BiomoleculeCompositionFunctions CarbohydratesCarbon, hydrogen, oxygen Sugars, starches Store and release energy Lipids Carbon, hydrogen, some oxygen Fats, oils and waxes Stores energy, protects, membranes Proteins Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, some sulfur Structure for tissue and organs Nucleic AcidsCarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus RNA and DNA Stores cellular information
Enzymes An enzyme is a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction.
Enzymes An increase in the concentration, pH and temperature will cause the rate of reaction of the enzyme to speed up.
Section 7.1 Summary – pages The cell theory is made up of three main ideas: All cells come from preexisting cells. The cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
Chapter Assessment Transport proteins form the selectively permeable membrane and move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane.
Eukaryotic Cell Structures Cell PartFunction Cell Wall Support and Protection Cell Membrane Maintain homeostasis by allowing some things in and keeps other things out Cytoplasm Clear fluid that is the site of chemical reactions and suspends organelles Nucleus Contains DNA, codes for all functions of cell Nuclear EnvelopeSurrounds the nucleus NucleolusProduces ribosomes Chromatin Loose DNA material, contains genetic code Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum Site of cellular chemical reactions MicrotubulesSupport- hollow cylinders MicrofilamentsSupport - solid protein fibers Vacuoles Membrane bound structures used for temporary storage Mitochondria Site of cellular respiration – transforms energy Golgi Apparatus Sorts, stacks, and stores proteins Chloroplasts Captures light energy to produce carbohydrates Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Cilia Hair-like projections that move in a wavelike motion flagella Long projections that move in a whip-like motion
Transport Through the Cell Membrane Type of Transport Transport Protein Used? Direction of Movement Requires Energy Input from Cell? Classification of Transport Simple Diffusion No With concentration gradient NoPassive Facilitated Diffusion Yes Channel proteins or carrier proteins With concentration gradient NoPassive Active Transport Yes Carrier proteins Against concentration gradient YesActive
Section 8.2 Summary – pages The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the sequence of growth and division of a cell. The majority of a cell’s life is spent in the growth period known as interphase. Following interphase, a cell enters its period of nuclear division called mitosis. Following mitosis, cytokinesis occurs which is when the cytoplasm divides, separating the two daughter cells. Interphase Mitosis cytokinesis
Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Chromatin coils Spindle fibers form Nuclear envelope disappears Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres Chromosomes move to the equator Centromeres split Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell Two distinct daughter cells are formed Nuclear membrane reforms Cells separate as the cell cycle proceeds into the next interphase
Mendel’s Laws The law of segregation states that every individual has two alleles of each gene and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives one of these alleles. The law of independent assortment states that genes for different traits—for example, seed shape and seed color—are inherited independently of each other.
Prophase I: Chromatin coils Spindle fibers form Nuclear envelope disappears Crossing over occurs Metaphase I: Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres Homologous chromosomes move to the equator Anaphase I: Chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell Telophase I: Two distinct daughter cells are formed Nuclear membrane reforms Cells immediately go into Meiosis II
Prophase II: Chromatin coils Spindle fibers form Nuclear envelope disappears Metaphase II: Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres Chromosomes move to the equator Anaphase II: Centromeres split Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell Telophase II: 4 haploid cells are formed Nuclear membrane reforms Cells separate
Crossing Over Diagram
Section 10.2 Summary – pages This pattern of reproduction, involving the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells, is called sexual reproduction. Meiosis Sperm Cell Egg Cell Haploid gametes (n=23) Fertilization Diploid zygote (2n=46) Mitosis and Development Multicellular diploid adults (2n=46) What is Meiosis?
Section 10.1 Summary – pages Mendel concluded that each organism has two factors that control each of its traits. We now know that these factors are genes and that they are located on chromosomes Genes exist in alternative forms. We call these different gene forms alleles. Mendel called the observed trait dominant and the trait that disappeared recessive. Inheritance T T t t T t
Section 10.1 Summary – pages Phenotypes and Genotypes The way an organism looks and behaves is called its phenotype. The allele combination an organism contains is known as its genotype. An organism’s genotype can’t always be known by its phenotype An organism is homozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait are the same. An organism is heterozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait differ from each other.
Section 10.1 Summary – pages The two kinds of gametes from one parent are listed on top of the square, and the two kinds of gametes from the other parent are listed on the left side. Heterozygous tall parent Tt T t Tt T t Heterozygous tall parent Tt T t TTTt tt Monohybrid crosses Resulting genotypes: TT, Tt, and tt Resulting phenotypes: 3 tall, 1 short
Section 10.1 Summary – pages A Punnett square for a dihybrid cross will need to be four boxes on each side for a total of 16 boxes. Dihybrid crosses Punnett Square of Dihybrid Cross Gametes from RrYy parent RY Ry rYry Gametes from RrYy parent RY Ry rY ry RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy RRYy RrYy Rryy RrYYRrYyrrYY rrYy RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy
Origin of Life on Earth
Section 14.2 Summary – pages Simple organic molecules formed Scientists hypothesize that two developments must have preceded the appearance of life on Earth. 1. simple organic molecules, or molecules that contain carbon, must have formed. 2. Then these molecules must have become organized into complex organic molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids that are essential to life.
Section 14.2 Summary – pages A protocell is a large, ordered structure, enclosed by a membrane, that carries out some life activities, such as growth and division. The first forms of life may have been prokaryotic forms that evolved from a protocell. Because Earth’s atmosphere lacked oxygen, scientists have proposed that these organisms were most likely anaerobic. The first autotrophs were probably similar to present- day archaebacteria.
Section 14.2 Summary – pages The Endosymbiont Theory Complex eukaryotic cells probably evolved from prokaryotic cells. The endosymbiont theory,proposed by American biologist Lynn Margulis in the early 1960s, explains how eukaryotic cells may have arisen. The endosymbiont theory proposes that eukaryotes evolved through a symbiotic relationship between ancient prokaryotes.
Section 14.2 Summary – pages Prokaryote Aerobic bacteria Mitochondria Cyanobacteria Chloroplasts Animal Cell Plant cell A prokaryote ingested some aerobic bacteria. The aerobes were protected and produced energy for the prokaryote. Over a long time, the aerobes become mitochondria, no longer able to live on their own. Some primitive prokaryotes also ingested cyanobacteria, which contain photosynthetic pigments. The cyanobacteria become chloroplasts, no longer able to live on their own. The endosymbiont theory Chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own DNA and ribosomes and they reproduce independently of the cells that contain them
Section 15.1 Summary – pages Anatomy Structural features with a common evolutionary origin are called homologous structures. Homologous structures can be similar in arrangement, in function, or in both. Whale forelimb Crocodile forelimb Bird wing
Section 15.1 Summary – pages Anatomy The body parts of organisms that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function are called analogous structures. For example, insect and bird wings probably evolved separately when their different ancestors adapted independently to similar ways of life.
Section 15.1 Summary – pages Another type of body feature that suggests an evolutionary relationship is a vestigial structure —a body structure in a present-day organism that no longer serves its original purpose, but was probably useful to an ancestor. Anatomy Vestigial structures, such as pelvic bones in the baleen whale, are evidence of evolution because they show structural change over time.
Section 15.1 Summary – pages Darwin observed that the traits of individuals vary in populations. Variations are then inherited. Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits is called artificial selection. Natural selection is a mechanism for change in populations. This occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce, and pass their variations to the next generation. Organisms without these variations are less likely to survive and reproduce.
The cerebral cortex controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions Each side of the cerebral cortex has four lobes – Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital Frontal lobe Temporal lobeOccipital lobe Parietal lobe Frontal association area Speech Smell Hearing Auditory association area Vision Visual association area Somatosensory association area Reading Speech Taste Somatosensory cortex Motor cortex
Section 37.2 Summary – pages Blood’s path through the heart The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through four pulmonary veins. Inferior vena cava Left lung Right lung Capillaries Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Superior vena cava Aorta RA LA LV RV
Section 37.2 Summary – pages Blood pressure Blood pressure is the force that the blood exerts on the blood vessels. Blood pressure rises and falls as the heart contracts and then relaxes. Blood pressure rises sharply when the ventricles contract, pushing blood through the arteries.
Section 39.2 Summary – pages The body’s earliest lines of defense against any and all pathogens make up your nonspecific, innate immunity Intact skin is a formidable physical barrier to the entrance of microorganisms. Skin and body secretions In addition to the skin, pathogens also encounter your body’s secretions of mucus, oil, sweat, tears, and saliva.
Section 39.2 Summary – pages This acquired immune response enables these white blood cells to inactivate or destroy the pathogen. Acquired Immunity Non-specific Immune Response Acquired Immunity Non-specific Immune Response Defending against a specific pathogen by gradually building up a resistance to it is called acquired immunity.
Section 39.2 Summary – pages Artificial passive immunity involves injecting into the body antibodies that come from an animal or a human who is already immune to the disease. Passive Immunity
Section 39.2 Summary – pages Active Immunity Recommended Childhood Immunizations Immunization Agent Protection Against Acellular DPT or Tetrammune MMR OPV HBV HIB or Tetrammune Bacteria Virus Bacteria Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus (lockjaw) Measles, mumps, rubella Poliomyelitis (polio) Hepatitis B Haemophilis influenza B (spinal meningitis)
Section 39.1 Summary – pages An antibiotic is a substance produced by a microorganism that, in small amounts, will kill or inhibit the growth and reproduction of other microorganisms, especially bacteria. Treating Diseases Although antibiotics can be used to cure some bacterial infections, antibiotics do not have an affect on viruses.
Male Reproductive Anatomy Seminal Vesicles: posterior to the urinary bladder; secrete yellowish viscous alkaline fluid containing fructose, vitamin C, and coagulating enzymes Prostate Gland: inferior to the urinary bladder; produces milky white fluid which activates sperm Vas deferens: tubes that transport sperm from the testes to the ejaculatory ducts Urethra: tube that passes urine and semen out of the body. Epididymis: superior to each testis; tubular (5-6 m); maturate sperm Scrotum: pouch of skin that holds the testes. Scrotal skin lengthens and shrinks to maintain sperm temperature Penis: semen delivery Testes: produce male sperm and testosterone
Female Reproductive Structures Ovaries: Production of eggs Oviduct (fallopian tube): transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus Uterus: organ in which the egg will implant and the embryo will grow Cervix: lower end of the uterus Vagina: Birth Canal
Section 38.2 Summary – pages During the first trimester, all the organ systems of the embryo begin to form. By the eighth week, all the organ systems have been formed, and the embryo is now referred to as a fetus. First trimester: Organ systems form
Section 38.2 Summary – pages Growth is rapid during the fourth month, but then slows by the beginning of the fifth month. During the fifth month, fetal movements can be felt by the mother. In the sixth month of development, the fetus’s eyes open and eyelashes form. The fetus’s metabolism cannot yet maintain a constant body temperature, and its lungs have not matured enough to provide a regular respiratory rate. Second trimester: A time of growth
Section 38.2 Summary – pages During the last trimester, the mass of the fetus more than triples. Third trimester: Continued growth During the eighth month, fat is deposited beneath the skin, which will help insulate the newborn. By the end of the third trimester the fetus can sustain life outside the mother.