Presentation on theme: "Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis. Section 2 Objectives – page 201 Section Objectives Relate the function of a cell to its organization in tissues, organs,"— Presentation transcript:
Section 2 Objectives – page 201 Section Objectives Relate the function of a cell to its organization in tissues, organs, and organ systems. Sequence the events of the cell cycle.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cell Size Limitations The cells that make up a multicellular organism come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Considering this wide range of cells sizes, why then can’t most organisms be just one giant cell? What limits cell size?
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 1. Diffusion limits cell size Although diffusion is a fast and efficient process over short distances, it becomes slow and inefficient as the distances become larger. Because of the slow rate of diffusion, organisms can’t be just one giant- sized cell.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 2. DNA limits cell size The cell cannot survive unless there is enough DNA to support the protein needs of the cell. In many large cells, more than one nucleus is present. Large amounts of DNA in many nuclei ensure that cell activities are carried out quickly and efficiently.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 3. Surface area-to-volume ratio As a cell’s size increases, its volume increases much faster than its surface area. Volume mm3 (inside) and Area mm2 (outside). Surface area = 6 mm 2 Volume = 1 mm 3 Surface area = 24 mm 2 Volume = 8 mm 3 1 mm 2 mm 4 mm
Faced with all of this... A cell must divide or die. Most chose to divide or reproduce in a process called mitosis.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cell Reproduction - Mitosis Cell division is the process by which new cells are produced from one cell. Cell division results in two cells that are identical to the original, parent cell.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The discovery of chromosomes Structures, which contain DNA and become darkly colored when stained, are called chromosomes. Chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The structure of eukaryotic chromosomes Centromere Chromosome Sister chromatids Supercoil within chromosome Continued coiling within supercoil Histone H1 Nucleosome DNA
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the sequence of growth and division of a cell. The majority of a cell’s life is spent in the growth period known as interphase. Interphase
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 The Cell Cycle Following interphase, a cell enters its period of nuclear division called mitosis. Following mitosis, the cytoplasm divides, separating the two daughter cells. Mitosis
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time During the first part, the cell grows and protein production is high. Rapid growth and metabolic activity Interphase
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time The first part of Interphase is called the G1 phase: the cell grows and makes protein.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time The second stage of interphase is the S phase: it stands for synthesis of DNA. This is when the cell makes an extra set of chromosomes.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Interphase: A Busy Time The third part of interphase is a second growth phase called G2. During this time, mitochondria and other organelles are made and parts needed for cell division are put together.
Now the cell is ready! Mitosis consists of 4 stages. These four stages allow for the nucleus to divide. Prophase – for “preparing” Metaphase – for “middle” Anaphase – for “away” Telophase – for “two”
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase: Preparing the cell for dividing. During prophase, the chromatin coils to form visible chromosomes. Spindle fibers Disappearing nuclear envelope Doubled chromosome
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Prophase:What form the DNA is in. The two halves of the doubled structure are called sister chromatids. These make a chromosome. Sister chromatids Centromere
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Metaphase: Chromosomes in the Middle During metaphase, the chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle. Centromere Sister chromatids
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Anaphase: Chromatids Away During anaphase, the centromeres split and the sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Telophase: Two new cells are formed. During telophase, two new daughter cells are formed. The cells separate as the cell cycle goes into the next interphase. Nuclear envelope reappears Two daughter cells are formed
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Cytokinesis Following telophase, the cell’s cytoplasm divides in a process called cytokinesis. Cytokinesis differs between plants and animals because of the need to make a cell wall. Toward the end of telophase in animal cells, the plasma membrane pinches in along the equator.
Section 8.2 Summary – pages 201 - 210 Results of Mitosis When mitosis is complete, unicellular organisms remain as single cells. In multicellular organisms, cell growth and reproduction result in groups of cells that work together as tissue to perform a specific function.