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Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1.Which question would ecologists most likely research? A.How do point mutations effect protein synthesis? B.How do aquatic plants react.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1.Which question would ecologists most likely research? A.How do point mutations effect protein synthesis? B.How do aquatic plants react."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1.Which question would ecologists most likely research? A.How do point mutations effect protein synthesis? B.How do aquatic plants react to pesticides? C.What is the chemical structure of sucrose? D.How does color in petunias pass from parent to offspring? 2. All of these characterize most laboratory accidents except- A.Carelessness B. lack of attention C. Inappropriate behavior D. reduced risk-taking

2 Agenda Warm Up Ecology Quiz 2 Notes Practice Multiple Choice Questions 1 Ecology Review Worksheet Clean-Up Cool-down

3 Review for Ecology Exam 1 Guided Notes 12

4 Types of organisms Two main types: 1.Autotroph (producer)-makes its own food must rely on itself to get energy 2.Heterotroph (consumer)-cannot makes its own food must rely on other organisms for energy

5 Types of Organisms Heterotrophs 1.Herbivore-eats plants Ex: deer 2.Carnivore-eats meat Ex: wolf 3.Omnivore-eats both plants and meat Ex: humans 4.Decomposer-breaks down organic material to get energy Ex: Fungi 5.Scavenger-eats organisms that are already dead Ex: vulture

6 Nutrient Cycles Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and energy to produce oxygen Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and energy to produce carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is also released while burning fossil fuels and in factories

7 Nutrient Cycles Water Cycle Precipitation  Evaporation  Transpiration  Condensation

8 Nutrient Cycles Nitrogen cycle Bacteria can “fix” nitrogen, meaning they can bring it out of the air into a form the plants can use Nodules on plant roots contain this nitrogen fixing bacteria The bacteria on the roots get nourishment and the plants get nitrogen (MUTUALISM)

9 Food Chains Grass  Rabbit  Snake  Hawk Producer  Primary Consumer  Secondary Consumer  Tertiary Consumer Autotroph  Herbivore  Carnivore  Carnivore Autotroph  Heterotroph  Heterotroph  Heterotroph

10 Energy pyramid Only 10% of the energy is passed between each trophic level Therefore much more energy is found at the bottom than at the top

11 Ecological Niche/Habitat Ecological Niche-an organism’s role in the environment (birds on different parts of the tree) Habitat-physical location (an organism’s home)

12 Mutualism Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit ++Win-Win! Examples: Flowers and bees (bees get food and the flowers get to reproduce)

13 Commensalism Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected + 0Win-unaffected Examples: Barnacles on whale (the barnacles get food and the whale does not know they are there)

14 Parasitism Symbiotic relationship in which an organism feeds off a host + -Win-lose Examples: Tapeworm, tick, hookworm, leech

15 Reminders Biome Brochure Friday. (Feb. 18 rd )

16 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1.Which statement best describes an activity that will contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in an organism? A.A desert rattlesnake enters an underground burrow on a hot summer day. B.A shark swims toward a highly polluted region of the ocean. C.Roots of a willow tree grow away from a moisture rich region of the soil. D.A polar bear sheds most of its fur during the coldest months of winter. 2. Which of the following would be the niche of decomposers in an ecosystem? A.Break down nitrogen and oxygen B.Break down waste and dead matter C.Provide nutrients for carnivores to make energy D.Provide nutrients for omnivores to make energy

17 Agenda Warm Up Ecology flip-flop Notes Practice Multiple Choice Questions 2 Ecology Poster Clean Up Cool-Down

18 Review for Ecology Exam 2 Guided Notes 13

19 Levels of Organization Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere

20 Levels of Organization Population-same species, same place Ex: group of bears in my backyard Community-different species, same place Ex: group of bears, beavers, and deer in my backyard

21 Levels of Organization Ecosystem-different species + abiotic factors in the same place Ex: group of bears, beavers, and deer in my backyard and the sunlight and wind Biome-similar climate conditions and characteristic plants and animals Ex: desert Biosphere-basically the entire planet

22 Succession Succession-series of changes made to a community after a disruption Two types: 1.Primary-starts from scratch Caused by: volcanoes and glaciers 2. Secondary-starts from existing community Caused by: forest fires and hurricanes

23 Population Growth Exponential Growth (J-shape)- the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate Logistic Growth (S-shape)- growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

24 Population Growth Human population shows exponential growth because of improved medicine, sanitation, and health care Limiting factor-something that causes population size to decrease Two types: Density-dependent and density- independent

25 Density-Dependent Factors Depends on population size Gets worse as population becomes more dense Examples: 1.Competition 2.Disease 3.Predation 4.Parasitism REMEMBER: Cats Don’t Pet Piranhas

26 Density-Independent Factors Does NOT depend on population size It does not matter how big the population is Examples: 1.Human Activities 2.Seasonal Cycles 3.Unusual Weather 4.Natural Disasters REMEMBER: Hot SUN

27 Predator-Prey Predator-prey populations mirror each other Predator-eater Prey-organism being eaten

28 Competition Competition-Occurs when two organisms want the same resource at the same time Example: Two lions fighting over a zebra

29 Reminders

30 Ecology Poster Divide your paper into 4. In each square, draw 1.A logistic graph (labeling axes with units and carrying capacity) 2.An exponential graph (labeling axes with units) 3.A food chain with pictures (labeling a producer, primary co., secondary co., and tertiary co.) 4.An ecological pyramid (labeling a producer, primary co., secondary co., and tertiary co. and starting with 5000 joules of energy at the bottom)

31 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1. Which of these statements is NOT true? A.The process of succession resulting in a climax community always happens within one year. B.Secondary succession happens in areas where organisms previously lived. C.Primary succession occurs when communities populate barren land. D.Ecological change does not always equate with destruction. 2. The carrying capacity of a given environment is least dependent upon A.Recycling of materialsB. The availability of energy C.Availability of food D. Daily temperature fluctuations

32 Agenda Warm Up Ecology Word Scramble Notes Ecology “Quiz” Finish Ecology Poster Practice Questions Clean-Up Cool-down

33 Metabolism Homeostasis

34 Review for Ecology Exam 3 Guided Notes 14

35 Biodiversity Variety = Diversity Biodiversity-the total of the genetically based variety of all organisms in the biosphere

36 Biodiversity Human activity can reduce biodiversity by causing the following: 1.Habitat Destruction 2. Wildlife Products Demand 3. Pollution (DDT) 4. Invasive species

37 Michael Barron of the National Park Service took this picture of a carcass of an alligator as it protrudes out from the body of a dead Burmese python in Everglades National Park, Florida. The Burmese python is an invasive species -- 144,000 have been imported to the U.S. in the past five years for the pet trade.

38 Biodiversity Extinction-when a species disappears from all or part of its range Endangered species-a species whose population size places it in danger of extinction Conservation -the wise management of natural resources including the preservation of habitats and wildlife

39 Climate Change Ozone Layer-the atmosphere between 20-50 km above Earth’s surface and protects the Earth from harmful UV radiation UV radiation causes sunburn and cancer Holes in the Ozone layer have been discovered above Antarctica. These holes were caused by CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons found in aerosol cans and refrigerators

40 Climate Change Greenhouse effect-where radiation produced by the atmosphere warms earth Global warming-the increase the average temperature of the biosphere Evidence: 1. melting polar ice 2. increased carbon dioxide levels due to burning fossil fuels Effects: 1. rise in sea levels (flooding) 2. increase in global temperature 3. Organisms go extinct

41 Review

42 1.What processes get water from the earth into the air?

43 Transpiration and Evaporation

44 2. Grass  Rabbit  Hawk Which is the primary consumer?

45 Rabbit

46 Grass  Rabbit  Hawk Which is the autotroph?

47 Grass

48 4. Carbon from the air is made into organic compounds through which process?

49 Photosynthesis

50 The increase in the overall global temperature is called what?

51 Global Warming

52 Reminders Study hard and smart tonight! If there is no struggle, there is no progress. (Who said that??) EMBRACE THE STRUGGLE!

53 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1.An epidemic of black plague hit Europe in the 17 th century and killed many people in the urban areas but not as many in rural areas. What type of limiting factor is this? A. Density independent B. density dependent C. CompetitionD. predation 2.The bottom layer of the pyramid can be described as: A.heterotrophs, producers, smallest amount of energy, largest number of organisms B.autotrophs, producers, largest amount of energy, smallest number of organisms C.autotrophs, consumers, largest amount of energy, largest number of organisms D.autotrophs, producers, largest amount of energy, largest number of organisms

54 Agenda Warm Up Review time Ecology Exam Article 4 Worktime Clean Up Cool-Down

55 Warm-Up / EOC Prep 1.Which sentence best states the importance of using control groups? A.Control groups provide a method by which statistical variability can be reduced. B.Control groups allow comparison between subjects receiving a treatment and those receiving no treatment. C.Control groups eliminate the need for statistical tests and simplify calculations. D.Control groups eliminate the need for large sample sizes, reducing the number of measurements needed. 2. A country that has a stable population is characterized by an age structure that is____? A.Largest among post-reproductive years B.About the same among all groups C.Largest among pre-reproductive years D.Largest among reproductive years

56 Agenda Warm Up Journey to Planet Earth Video DDT Letter to Obama Clean Up Raffle

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