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EOC BIOLOGY REVIEW. In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism? –Amount of adenine –Number of sugars –Sequence of nitrogen bases.

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Presentation on theme: "EOC BIOLOGY REVIEW. In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism? –Amount of adenine –Number of sugars –Sequence of nitrogen bases."— Presentation transcript:

1 EOC BIOLOGY REVIEW

2 In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism? –Amount of adenine –Number of sugars –Sequence of nitrogen bases –Strength of hydrogen bonds 5C – Describe the roles of DNA, RNA and environmental factors in cell differentiation.

3 “Thymine—guanine—thymine— cytosine” describes — –nucleotides within and RNA strand –a sequence of bases within a DNA section –points of DNA separation during protein synthesis 6B – Recognize the components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms.

4 If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis? –11 –19 –38 –76 5A – Describe the stages of the cell cycle, including DNA, replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms.

5 Ultraviolet radiation can cause mutations in the DNA of skin cells that have been overexposed to the sun. This mutated DNA has no effect on future offspring because — –changes in skin cell DNA are homozygous recessive –mutations must occur within the RNA codons –offspring reject parental skin cells –only changes to gamete DNA can be inherited 6E – Identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes.

6 Part of a DNA strand is represented in the diagram above. In order for DNA to replicate, the strand must separate at which of the following locations? –Between every phosphate-sugar pair –Between the eight sugar-base pairs –Between the four nitrogenous base pairs –Between any two chemical bonds 6B – Recognize the components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms.

7 –A protein could not be manufactured. –A lysosome would digest the cell. –Osmosis would not occur in the cell. –Dehydration could be prevented in the cytoplasm. 6C – Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA. The diagram shows how an mRNA molecule is synthesized. What would be the most likely result if a bacterial infection stopped the production of the RNA polymerase?

8 The chain represents three codons. Which of the following changes would be expected in the amino acid chain if the mutation shown occurred? The amino acid sequence would be shorter than expected. The identity of one amino acid would change. The amino acid sequence would remain unchanged. The identities of more than one amino acid would change. 6C – Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA.

9 Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their- –size –spindle fibers –growth rate –surface area 5D - recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.

10 Cell division is represented in the figure by the letter- –A –B –C –D 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules.

11 Energy conversion within an animal cell would be severely limited by removal of the cell’s — –Mitochondria –Golgi Apparatus –Lysosomes –Chloroplasts 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

12 What type of cellular process is occurring in the figure below? –Osmosis –Diffusion –Active Transport –Both A and C 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules.

13 Which of these is a function of the cell membrane in all cells? –Producing cellular nutrients –Preserving cellular wastes –Neutralizing chemicals –Maintaining homeostasis 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

14 Which organelle directs the activity of the cell’s organelles and directions to make proteins? –Nucleus –Mitochondria –Vacuole –Cell Membrane 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

15 Which process occurs in the chloroplasts of all cells? –Cellular respiration –Photosynthesis –Reproduction –Protein synthesis 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules.

16 The red blood cells in the figure above are in a ____________ solution –Isotonic –Hypertonic –Hypotonic –Active Transport 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules.

17 What volume should be reported for the solution in this graduated cylinder? –64.0 mL –56.2 mL –56.0 mL –50.6 mL 1A - demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations

18 Where does cellular respiration take place in the cell? –Thylakoid –Chloroplast –Mitochondria –Vacuole 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

19 Look at the Venn Diagram. It compares the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Which elements would you put in section Y? –I, II –I, III –I, II, III –III I. CO2 II. O2 III. C6H12O6 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules.

20 Which of following lists the scientific method in order from beginning to end? –Purpose-Research-Hypothesis-Experiment- Conclusion-Analysis –Purpose-Research-Hypothesis-Analysis- Experiment-Conclusion –Purpose-Research-Hypothesis-Experiment- Analysis-Conclusion –Purpose-Hypothesis-Research-Experiment- Analysis-Conclusion 2E - plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

21 Glucose is a sugar which is what type of organic molecule? –Fructose –Enzyme –Protein –Carbohydrates 9A - compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

22 The diagram shows water molecules arranged in a row. What is the most likely reason that each water molecule is arranged so that the oxygen part of the molecule faces a hydrogen part of the molecule? –The oxygen in a water molecule contains a partial negative charge. –Gravity rotates the oxygen atoms to face the more massive sodium ions. –Hydrogen atoms create repulsive forces with chloride ions. –Oxygen atoms form covalent bonds with sodium ions. 9A - compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

23 Proteins are produced according to a special code found in the control center of the cell. Which of these molecules carries this code: –DNA –ATP –Glucose –Lipid 9A - compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

24 Which biomolecule is made of amino acids? –Carbohydrates –Polysaccharides –Polymers –Proteins 9A - compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

25 Which of the following organelles is present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes? –Nucleus –Ribosomes –Golgi apparatus –Endoplasmic reticulum 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

26 The swordfish has a heat-generating organ that warms its brain and eyes up to 14°C above the surrounding water temperature. What structures are likely to be found in relatively high concentrations in the cells of this organ? –Chromosomes –Mitochondria –Nuclei –Ribosomes 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

27 Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration often considered opposites? –Photosynthesis produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular respiration does. –Water is released during photosynthesis and consumed during cellular respiration. –Photosynthesis occurs during the day, and cellular respiration occurs at night. –Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used during cellular respiration. 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules.

28 4B - investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules. Saltwater fish remove extra salt from their body by active transport through the gills. What is the result of this activity? –The salt becomes more chemically active. –Water balance is maintained in the blood. –The rate of energy production is decreased. –The cell membrane becomes less permeable to water.

29 The safest way to dilute concentrated sulfuric acid is to add — –a series of small volumes of water to the acid while stirring –the acid to water slowly while stirring constantly –the acid to a small volume of water and then add more water –dilute sulfuric acid to a small volume of the concentrated acid 1A - demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations

30 In eukaryotes, DNA – –is located in the nucleus. –floats freely in the cytoplasm. –is located in the ribosomes. –is circular. 4A - compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

31 During mitosis, the – –DNA molecules unwind. –histones and DNA molecules separate. –DNA molecules become more tightly coiled. –chromosomes condense and sister chromatids separate. 5A - describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms

32 The chemical factors that determine traits are called – –alleles –traits –genes –characters 6B - recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms

33 The process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells is called – –cell division –metaphase –interphase –mitosis 5A - describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms

34 During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing –two chromosomes. –four chromosomes. –eight chromosomes. –sixteen chromosomes. 5A - describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms

35 Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to control their – –size –spindle fibers –growth rate –surface area 5D - recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.

36 The diagram shows chromosomes in a cell undergoing cell division. If one of the chromosomes breaks during this process, which of the following will most likely happen? –Mutation –Selection –Segregation –Duplication 5A - describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms

37 How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids? –3 –6 –9 –12 6C – Explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA.

38 A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self-pollinate – –the offspring will be of medium height –all of the offspring will be tall –all of the offspring will be short –some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short 6F – Predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses, and non-Mendelian inheritance.

39 Gametes are produced by the process of –Mitosis –Meiosis –crossing-over –replication 6G - recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction

40 Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of – –diploid cells –haploid cells –2N daughter cells –body cells 6G - recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction

41 Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of – –two genetically identical cells –four genetically different cells –four genetically identical cells –two genetically different cells 6G -

42 Mutations in DNA can occur when — –replication of DNA is exact –a DNA enzyme attaches to an RNA codon –RNA codons are replaced by DNA nucleotides –a change occurs in DNA nucleotide bases 6E – Identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes.

43 In which layer would the most recent relatives of modern day animals be found? –Layer A –Layer C –Layer E –Layer F 7B – Analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning any data of sudden appearance, stasis and sequential nature of groups in the fossil record.

44 Which statement is best supported by the information below? –Barnacles develop within the whale uterus. –Whales descended from ancestors with hair. –Fluid inside the uterus is colder than seawater. –Adult whales will possess more hair in the future. 7C – Analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals.

45 Differences in amino acid sequences and DNA sequences are greater among species that are more distantly related than between species that are more closely related. These biochemical differences and relatedness are used as evidence of- –Translation –Transcription –Vestigial structures –Evolution 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

46 A man treated his home with a pesticide that kills roaches. The first application of the pesticide killed 92% of the roaches. Two months later he applied the pesticide to his home again, but the second application killed only 65% of the roaches. What would best explain the decrease in the effectiveness of the pesticide? –The pesticide is effective only against mature roaches. –Once roaches learned how to fight the pesticide, they taught others. –The surviving roaches were naturally resistant to the pesticide, and that resistance was inherited by their offspring. –The pesticide caused some of the roaches’ digestive systems to mutate and metabolize the pesticide. 7C – Analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals.

47 Which of these conclusions can be made based on the graphs shown above? –Larger mosquitoes have migrated into the area. –Smaller mosquitoes are being eaten by larger mosquitoes. –A mosquito length of 2 cm has become a disadvantage in this environment. –Mosquitoes with a body length of 3 cm have the longest life span. 7D – Analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive successes.

48 The diagram shows relationships of selected species over time. According to this information, which of these species is expected to have the greatest phenotypic difference from the ancestral species? –Species Q –Species R –Species T –Species U 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

49 The guppy is a species of small freshwater fish. Scientists observed that the average size of guppies in a pond decreased over a few years after a guppy predator was introduced into the pond. Which of the following best explains the change in guppy size? –Speciation –Convergent evolution –Inbreeding –Natural selection 7C – Analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals.

50 Which of the following best explains how the milkweed bug’s coloration helps it avoid being eaten by birds? –Birds become confused by the bug’s coloration, so the bug has time to escape. –Birds associate the bug’s coloration with its bad taste and avoid eating it. –Birds are unable to locate the bug’s head, so the bug can escape. –Birds cannot locate the bug because it appears to be part of the plant. 7E – Analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species

51 Which of the following is best supported by the information shown below? –These lizards evolved in arid habitats. –Modern lizards drink more water than their ancestors did. –These lizards cool themselves by evaporation. –Modern lizards excrete more water than their ancestors did. 7E – Analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species

52 One of the adaptations that Darwin noted on the species of finches found on the Galápagos Islands was that they displayed different structural adaptations in –the differences in egg shape and color –the birds’ beaks –the length and type of legs –the number of mating partners 7D – Analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive successes.

53 The same kinds of structures/limbs that grow in structurally different patterns in different organisms (bat wing and butterfly wing) are termed as – –analogous structures –Endosymbiosis –natural selection –vestigial structures 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

54 Which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase in a population where a mutation occurs? –the number of alleles –survival of the fittest and rates of reproductive fitness –the number of possible phenotypes –whether the mutation causes a detrimental effect on the population 7F – Analyze and evaluate the effects of other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination.

55 The occurrence of the same amino acid sequence in digestive proteins in two morphologically unrelated species provides evidence that these two species – –occupy the same niche –have homologous structures –descended from a common ancestor –have evolved convergently 7F – Analyze and evaluate the effects of other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination.

56 A human embryo, when compared to a dolphin embryo, exhibits all of the following similarities during development except – –pharyngeal gill slits –a bony tail –fins –a coat of fine fur 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

57 Based on genes responsible for producing respiratory structures, which pair of organisms would be MOST closely related? –perch and grasshopper –tadpole and bird –fish and human –snake and monkey 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

58 Which of the following statements addresses a weakness of the hypothesis below? Hypothesis: An organism's reproductive fitness is based on the number of male offspring it produces. –The hypothesis is not testable. –The hypothesis contains multiple variables. –The hypothesis is too long. –The hypothesis does not include a control variable. 7D – Analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive successes.

59 The table shows an amino acid comparison of cytochrome c, a protein involved in cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. The two organisms in the table that are least genetically related are the — –silkworm moth and the fruit fly –silkworm moth and the screwworm fly –fruit fly and the screwworm fly –fruit fly and the hornworm moth 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

60 Using the fossil diagram, what inference can be drawn regarding relationship between the fossil in the lower layer of Layer pair 1 and Layer pair 3? –Both fossils are exactly the same species. –The fossil in Layer pair 1 is older than the fossil in Layer pair 3. –The fossil in Layer pair 1 is younger than the fossil in Layer pair 3. –The fossil in Layer pair 1 is the same age as the fossil in Layer pair 3.

61 The maps below show the geographic ranges of four species of the order Lagomorpha, which includes rabbits and hares. In which range would developing white fur in winter most likely not be an advantage for a member of this order?

62 Which of the following factors helps spread disease-causing bacteria? –Low temperatures –Access to new hosts –Mutation by heat energy –Availability of light 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

63 Lactose is a naturally occurring sugar found in milk. Some dairy products, such as yogurt, may contain live bacteria. These products are useful to people who lack the ability to digest lactose. What does this information demonstrate? –Bacteria raise the acidity of processed foods. –Some bacteria interfere with digestion. –Bacteria can prevent insulin production. –Some bacteria are beneficial to human health. 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

64 Which organism during a red tide would be found in great quantities? –E. coli –Brown algae –Diatoms –Dinoflagellates 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

65 The same kinds of structures/limbs that grow in structurally different patterns in different organisms (bat wing and butterfly wing) are termed as – –analogous structures –Endosymbiosis –natural selection –vestigial structures 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

66 What are the advantages of a standardized naming system? –The name for an organism is the same, no matter which country it is in. –All scientists have every organism’s name memorized. –Scientists have a common language to discuss a particular organism. –Groups of different organisms are classified into the same group. 8A – Define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community.

67 Which of these factors should be compared to best determine how closely species are related to each other? –number of genes –sequence of amino acids –location of chromosomes –physical similarities in body structures 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

68 The instructions for making new copies of a virus are –a part of a virus’s capsid. –coded in surface proteins attached to the protein coat. –coded in either RNA or DNA. –found only in bacteriophages. 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

69 Fungi do NOT –carry out photosynthesis. –grow on their food source. –digest food outside their bodies. –absorb food through their cell walls. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

70 Fungi resemble plants in that they both always –have stems. –grow from the ground. –are multicellular. –have cell walls. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

71 All of the organisms in a typical ecosystem are interdependent, helping to maintain the equilibrium of the ecosystem and sustaining each other. Which of the following processes can bacteria perform that is not possible for the other members of a typical ecosystem? –converting radiant energy into chemical energy –conserving water –using nitrogen from the atmosphere –decomposing the remains of dead organisms 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

72 Bread rises because fermentation by yeast produces –spores. –rhizoids. –water. –carbon dioxide. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

73 Scientists discover a new organism. The organism is autotrophic, with membrane bound organelles. To which of these kingdoms does this organism most likely belong? –Archaebacteria –Eubacteria –Animalia –Protista 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

74 Which of the following does not describe a fungus? –cell walls made of chitin –can carry on photosynthesis –absorb food through cell walls –reproduce using spores 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

75 Which statement about Penicillium is correct? –It produces mushrooms. –It causes bread to rise. –It is the source of an antibiotic. –It causes athlete’s foot. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

76 The most general group that an organism can belong to is its- –Genus –Class –Family –Kingdom 8A – Define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community.

77 Bacteria that cause disease are called –viruses. –pathogens. –endospores. –antibiotics. 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

78 Fungi that absorb food from decaying organic matter are –parasites. –saprobes. –mutualists. –autotrophs. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

79 Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium? –Tooth decay. –Tuberculosis. –AIDS. –Lyme disease. 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

80 What factors do the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia have in common? –They are all eukaryotes. –They are all photosynthetic organisms. –They are all multicellular organisms. –They are all prokaryotes. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

81 According to the scientific names, Felis catus and Felis silvestris do NOT belong to the same –Class –Family –Genus –Species 8A – Define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community.

82 Which of the following is a defining characteristic of a prokaryotic cell? –absence of a membrane bound nucleus –the method of cellular respiration –the composition of the cell membrane –the method of movement 4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

83 How can viruses be treated medically to reduce the number and prevent them from spreading? –Use antibiotics to kill them and, use vaccines to prevent them from spreading. –Use vaccines to kill them and, use antibiotics to prevent them from spreading. –Prevent them from spreading using vaccines, but do not treat with antibiotics. –Prevent them from spreading using antibiotics, but do not treat them with vaccines. 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

84 Lysogenic viruses DO NOT – –inject their DNA into the host cell –reproduce and lyse the host cell immediately –become dormant and divide with the cell’s DNA –infect a host cell 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral Reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases Such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

85 What characteristics are most useful in classifying this organism? –4, size –2, 3, 4 –4, 6, size –4, 6 4A – Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

86 Using the table below, identify which of the following most accurately describes an organism from the Kingdom Protista? 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals. KingdomCharacteristics 1Unicellular Prokaryotic Autotrophic 2Non-living Requires host high specificity 3Multicellular Eukaryotic Cell wall 4Unicellular/multicellular Eukaryotic Autotrophic/heterotrophic Kingdom 1 Kingdom 2 Kingdom 3 Kingdom 4

87 The result of a bacterial pathogen invading your body is – –the bacteria undergoes photosynthesis –the bacteria goes into a dormant phase –the bacteria breaks down body tissue as food –the bacteria goes into the lytic cycle and divides 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

88 Why are algae considered one of the most important groups of organisms on our planet? –They are rich in vitamin C. –They produce chemicals that are used to treat health problems. –They produce much of Earth’s oxygen through photosynthesis. –They produce chemicals that are used to make plastics, waxes and paints. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

89 In which location would a photosynthetic autotroph be found? –in a grocery store –in a dark cabinet –on your skin or in your hair –at or near the surface of oceans, lakes, streams, and ponds 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

90 In which layer would the most recent relatives of modern day animals be found? –Layer A –Layer C –Layer E –Layer F 7B – Analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning any data of sudden appearance, stasis and sequential nature of groups in the fossil record.

91 If an animal is not fit for its environment then according to Darwin it could lead to – –Replication –Mutation –Speciation –Extinction 7D – Analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive successes.

92 Birds and reptiles are similar in that they are vertebrates and lay eggs. They differ in that reptiles have teeth and birds have beaks. Some birds do possess teeth. However, these teeth are present only in the embryonic stage. Which conclusion is best supported by the presence of teeth in bird embryos –Birds and reptiles share a common ancestor. –Modern reptiles are the ancestors of modern birds. –Birds and reptiles eat similar types of food. –Ancestors of reptiles had beaks similar to those of birds. 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

93 Which statement is best supported by the information below? –Barnacles develop within the whale uterus. –Whales descended from ancestors with hair. –Fluid inside the uterus is colder than seawater. –Adult whales will possess more hair in the future. 7C – Analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals.

94 Differences in amino acid sequences and DNA sequences are greater among species that are more distantly related than between species that are more closely related. These biochemical differences and relatedness are used as evidence of- –Translation –Transcription –Vestigial structures –Evolution 7A – Analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies including anatomical, molecular, and developmental.

95 A man treated his home with a pesticide that kills roaches. The first application of the pesticide killed 92% of the roaches. Two months later he applied the pesticide to his home again, but the second application killed only 65% of the roaches. What would best explain the decrease in the effectiveness of the pesticide? –The pesticide is effective only against mature roaches. –Once roaches learned how to fight the pesticide, they taught others. –The surviving roaches were naturally resistant to the pesticide, and that resistance was inherited by their offspring. –The pesticide caused some of the roaches’ digestive systems to mutate and metabolize the pesticide. 7C – Analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals.

96 Some bacteria thrive in hostile environments, such as salt flats, boiling-hot springs, and carbonate- rock interiors, primarily because of bacteria’s –biochemical diversity –small sizes –round shapes –methods of movement 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

97 Which of the following factors helps spread disease-causing bacteria? –Low temperatures –Access to new hosts –Mutation by heat energy –Availability of light 12B – Compare variations and adaptations of organisms in different ecosystems.

98 A study shows that 40% to 100% of raw poultry is contaminated by disease-causing bacteria. Which of the following activities provides people the best protection from these bacteria? –Rinsing dishes thoroughly –Eating a balanced diet daily –Visiting a doctor regularly –Cooking foods properly 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

99 Streptococcus infection in a person’s throat can cause pain and fever. Streptococcus can be controlled by antibiotics. Streptococcus is a — –Virus –Bacterium –Protozoan –Fungus 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

100 Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment? –Carrying out photosynthesis –Recycling nutrients –Fixing nitrogen –All of the above 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

101 Bacteria that cause disease are called –viruses. –pathogens. –endospores. –antibiotics. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

102 Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control? –Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods. –Most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals. –Most bacteria form endospores when subjected to harsh environments. –Most bacteria do not cause food to spoil. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

103 Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food –die at low temperatures. –take longer to multiply at low temperatures. –require light to live. –grow more slowly in the dark. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

104 Which of the following will NOT kill bacteria? –Refrigeration –Boiling –Chemical disinfection –Frying 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

105 A laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom – –Animalia –Fungi –Plantae –Protista 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

106 Multicellular eukaryotes that are usually mobile and obtain food from other organisms probably belong to the kingdom – –Plantae –Fungi –Animalia –Protista 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

107 Which kingdom does this organism belong to? –Fungi –Archaebacteria –Plantae –Animalia 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

108 This organism most likely is a member of which kingdom? –Eubacteria –Protista –Animalia –Plantae 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

109 Some zooplankton belong to the kingdom Protista. Members of this kingdom are characterized as — –having segmented bodies with jointed appendages –containing one or more eukaryotic cells –laying eggs with a leathery protective shell –having a four-chambered heart 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

110 Which is a characteristic of members of the plant kingdom that distinguishes them from members of the animal kingdom? –Storage of energy in chemical bonds –Exchange of H2O with the environment –Use of mRNA during protein production –Use of chlorophyll for solar-energy transformation 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

111 Fungi do NOT –carry out photosynthesis. –grow on their food source. –digest food outside their bodies. –absorb food through their cell walls. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

112 Fungi resemble plants in that they both always –have stems. –grow from the ground. –are multicellular. –have cell walls. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

113 Which statement about Penicillium is correct? –It produces mushrooms. –It causes bread to rise. –It is the source of an antibiotic. –It causes athlete’s foot. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

114 An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is –photosynthesis. –breaking down dead organisms. –making alcohol. –killing bacteria. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

115 Fungi that absorb food from decaying organic matter are –parasites. –saprobes. –mutualists. –autotrophs. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

116 A person who comes down with malaria can infer that he or she contracted it from –contaminated water supplies. –infection by the animal-like protest Giardia. –the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. –the bite of the tsetse fly. 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

117 What is the most common threat to a host organism posed by an invading virus? –Production of viral fluids in the bloodstream –Fermentation of acids in the digestive system –Destruction of cells by viral reproduction –Stimulation of muscle tone in the heart 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

118 Viruses differ from bacteria in that all viruses — –cause insect-borne diseases –can be destroyed by antibiotics –have rigid cell walls –must be reproduced in living cells 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

119 Enzymes allow viruses to insert their genetic material into the host cell’s DNA. The virus benefits from this action by — –acquiring the traits of the host cell –causing the host cell to produce viruses –introducing random deadly mutations into the host cell –turning the host cell into a virus 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

120 Which of the following is a characteristic of all viruses? –Genetic information is stored as DNA –Contain protein coats –Has the machinery to reproduce –Can control its metabolism 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

121 Diseases that can be spread from person to person are known as communicable diseases. Communicable diseases can be caused by many different types of organisms and also by viruses. Which of the following communicable diseases is caused by a virus and can be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth? –Herpes –Malaria –Ringworm –Tetanus 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

122 8B – Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences shared among organisms. Genetic material would best fit into area – - W - X - Y - Z VirusesPlant Cells X Y Z Bacterial Cells W

123 Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium? –Tooth decay. –Tuberculosis. –AIDS. –Lyme disease. 8C – Compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including Archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals.

124 Bacteriophages infect –other viruses. –bacteria only. –any available host cell. –cells undergoing the lytic cycle. 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

125 Viral diseases can be –treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines. –treated with vaccines and prevented with antibiotics. –prevented with antibiotics but not treated with vaccines. –prevented with vaccines but not treated with antibiotics. 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

126 Which of the following structure or structures shown in Figure 19-1 do prokaryotes and viruses have in common? –A, B, C –A, B, E –D only –E only 4C – Compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

127 The human disease ringworm is caused by –worms. –bacteria. –a fungus. –yeasts. 11C – Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems.

128 XY FernsPine Trees MossWheat HorsetailsBluebonnets Which of the following is an appropriate title for column Y? - Seed bearing -Angiosperms -Gymnosperms -Non-vascular 10B – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction and response in plants.

129 Vascular plants use a variety of methods of reproduction to ensure the survival of its species. Which of the following statements supports this idea? –Animals assist in carrying seeds away from the parent plant to prevent competition. –Flowering plants produce small numbers of seeds. –Stems hold leaves toward the sun to capture energy. –Insects decrease self-pollination of many plants. 10B – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction and response in plants.

130 What adaptation enables leaves at the top of a tall pine tree to receive water? –Xylem in the roots, trunk, and branches –Phloem in the trunk and bark. –Photosynthesis in the trunk and branches –Vacuoles in the cells of the trunk and roots. 10B – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction and response in plants.

131 Which structure regulates gas exchange during the process of photosynthesis and respiration? –Q –R –S –T 10B – Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction and response in plants.


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