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Basic Cell Structure
Cells Basic building blocks of lifeUnderstanding of cell morphology is critical to the study of biotechnology
Cell Smallest living unit of an organismGrow, reproduce, use energy, adapt, respond to their environment
Cell Many cannot be seen with the naked eyeA cell may be an entire organism or it may be one of billions of cells that make up the organism
Cells Divided and classified in many waysOne common classification method is the presence or absence of a cell necleus
Nucleus Relatively large structure with a cell Directs cell activitiesSome simple single celled organisms lack a nucleus
Nucleus Prokaryotes – have no nucleus Eukaryotes – have a nucleus
Prokaryotes Single celled organism Kingdom Monera Lacks a cell nucleusInternal structure is less organized than other cells
Prokaryotes Genetic info needed is within the cellTwo most common – blue green bacteria and true bacteria
Blue green bacteria Have ability to produce their own food like plantsMost bacteria get their food from other sources
Prokaryotes Less complex than eukaryotesStill have many of the basic internal characteristics
Common prokaryote structuresCytoplasm Chromosomal material Cell membrane and wall Ribosomes Some have flagellum for mobility
Eukaryotes Organism made up of cells that have a nucleusMay be single celled – Kingdom Protista May have billions of cells like plant and animal kingdoms
Eukaryotes Single celled eukaryotes include paramecia, euglena, and diatoms
Eukaryotes Typically are highly organizedInfinite number of shapes and purposes
Eukaryotes Human body has at least 85 different cell typesAll eukaryotes have a number of structures in common
Common structures Organelles – smaller parts of the cell with specific funtions Cell membrane – acts as a gatekeeper
Cell membrane Controls what enters and leaves the cellPlants, algae and bacteria typically have a tough outer structure known as a cell wall
Cell wall Provides additional structure and protects the cell from pressure caused by movement of water Animal cells do not have walls
Cytoplasm Organelles are surrounded by a jelly like substancePrimary component is water
Nucleus Largest and most identifiable part of the cell
Other organelles Ribosomes Mitochondria Golgi bodiesEndoplasmic reticulum
Other organelles Lysosomes Vacuoles Chloroplasts in plants
Nucleus Brain of the cellSite of much of the manipulation done in biotechnology
Nucleus Controls activity of the cell Round or oval structureTypically found in the middle of the cell Appears darker than surrounding material
Nucleus Surrounded by a membrane that controls passage of materials in and out of the area
Nucleus Contains DNA DNA is located on chromosomesMost organisms are diploid – have two chromosomes for each trait
Diploid Humans – 23 pair Goldfish – 90 chrms, 45 pair
Cytoplasmic OrganellesOrganelles are required for proper cell function Ribosome – make proteins for cellular use and communication May be attached to endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulumLayered membraneous Make and transport proteins
Vacuole Large organelle, without specific shapeStore waste or raw materials used in synthesis of proteins
Golgi Bodies Golgi apparatus Similar to endo. Ret.Look like a thick elastic band that has been folded several times
Golgi Bodies Adds modifications to unfinished proteins Makes lysosomes
Lysosome Small round Store enzymes that break down food into chemical compounds Destroy cell organelles and the cell itself
Mitochondria Energy factories Rod shapedChange food into molecules that can be used for energy
Mitochondria Contain DNA Can replicate themselves
Chlorplast Found in plants and some other organismsContain chlorophyll
Cellular processes Respiration Osmosis Diffusion Photosynthesis
Respiration Cells break down carbohydrates and other molecules to produce energy Oxidation of glucose is one of most common forms
Respiration Breaking down of sugar into water, carbon dioxide, and energy Energy is used to do the work of the cell
Osmosis & Diffusion Transport of raw materials, wastes, and synthesized materials out of the cell
Diffusion Movement of molecules, especially gases and liquids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Osmosis Specific type of diffusionMovement of water through a membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Equilibrium Diffusion and osmosis happen to enable a cell to reach equilibrium
Cellular reproductionThree ways Fission Mitosis Meiosis
Fission Prokaryotes Cell grows larger and makes a second copy of its DNA At some point the cell membrane divides the cell by the growth of a transverse septum
Fission Two new cells are formed as the division grows inward from either side of the cell Two cells now called “daughter cells” Sometimes known as “binary fission”
Mitosis Eukaryotes Requires 6 stagesInterphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Mitosis Creates cells that are identical to the original cell.Have the entire compliment of chromosomes existing in pairs - diploid
Meiosis Division of sex cellsStages of Meiosis I: Interphase I, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis I
Meiosis Meiosis II Interphase II, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II, cytokinesis II
Meiosis Each cell receives one chromosome from each pair randomlyResulting cells have half the normal number of Chromosomes - haploid
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