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Basic Cell Structure
Cells Basic building blocks of life Understanding of cell morphology is critical to the study of biotechnology
Cell Smallest living unit of an organism Grow, reproduce, use energy, adapt, respond to their environment
Cell Many cannot be seen with the naked eye A cell may be an entire organism or it may be one of billions of cells that make up the organism
Cells Divided and classified in many ways One common classification method is the presence or absence of a cell necleus
Nucleus Relatively large structure with a cell Directs cell activities Some simple single celled organisms lack a nucleus
Nucleus Prokaryotes – have no nucleus Eukaryotes – have a nucleus
Prokaryotes Single celled organism Kingdom Monera Lacks a cell nucleus Internal structure is less organized than other cells
Prokaryotes Genetic info needed is within the cell Two most common – blue green bacteria and true bacteria
Blue green bacteria Have ability to produce their own food like plants Most bacteria get their food from other sources
Prokaryotes Less complex than eukaryotes Still have many of the basic internal characteristics
Common prokaryote structures Cytoplasm Chromosomal material Cell membrane and wall Ribosomes Some have flagellum for mobility
Eukaryotes Organism made up of cells that have a nucleus May be single celled – Kingdom Protista May have billions of cells like plant and animal kingdoms
Eukaryotes Single celled eukaryotes include paramecia, euglena, and diatoms
Eukaryotes Typically are highly organized Infinite number of shapes and purposes
Eukaryotes Human body has at least 85 different cell types All eukaryotes have a number of structures in common
Common structures Organelles – smaller parts of the cell with specific funtions Cell membrane – acts as a gatekeeper
Cell membrane Controls what enters and leaves the cell Plants, algae and bacteria typically have a tough outer structure known as a cell wall
Cell wall Provides additional structure and protects the cell from pressure caused by movement of water Animal cells do not have walls
Cytoplasm Organelles are surrounded by a jelly like substance Primary component is water
Nucleus Largest and most identifiable part of the cell
Other organelles Ribosomes Mitochondria Golgi bodies Endoplasmic reticulum
Other organelles Lysosomes Vacuoles Chloroplasts in plants
Nucleus Brain of the cell Site of much of the manipulation done in biotechnology
Nucleus Controls activity of the cell Round or oval structure Typically found in the middle of the cell Appears darker than surrounding material
Nucleus Surrounded by a membrane that controls passage of materials in and out of the area
Nucleus Contains DNA DNA is located on chromosomes Most organisms are diploid – have two chromosomes for each trait
Diploid Humans – 23 pair Goldfish – 90 chrms, 45 pair
Cytoplasmic Organelles Organelles are required for proper cell function Ribosome – make proteins for cellular use and communication May be attached to endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum Layered membraneous Make and transport proteins
Vacuole Large organelle, without specific shape Store waste or raw materials used in synthesis of proteins
Golgi Bodies Golgi apparatus Similar to endo. Ret. Look like a thick elastic band that has been folded several times
Golgi Bodies Adds modifications to unfinished proteins Makes lysosomes
Lysosome Small round Store enzymes that break down food into chemical compounds Destroy cell organelles and the cell itself
Mitochondria Energy factories Rod shaped Change food into molecules that can be used for energy
Mitochondria Contain DNA Can replicate themselves
Chlorplast Found in plants and some other organisms Contain chlorophyll
Cellular processes Respiration Osmosis Diffusion Photosynthesis
Respiration Cells break down carbohydrates and other molecules to produce energy Oxidation of glucose is one of most common forms
Respiration Breaking down of sugar into water, carbon dioxide, and energy Energy is used to do the work of the cell
Osmosis & Diffusion Transport of raw materials, wastes, and synthesized materials out of the cell
Diffusion Movement of molecules, especially gases and liquids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Osmosis Specific type of diffusion Movement of water through a membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Equilibrium Diffusion and osmosis happen to enable a cell to reach equilibrium
Cellular reproduction Three ways Fission Mitosis Meiosis
Fission Prokaryotes Cell grows larger and makes a second copy of its DNA At some point the cell membrane divides the cell by the growth of a transverse septum
Fission Two new cells are formed as the division grows inward from either side of the cell Two cells now called daughter cells Sometimes known as binary fission
Mitosis Eukaryotes Requires 6 stages Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Mitosis Creates cells that are identical to the original cell. Have the entire compliment of chromosomes existing in pairs - diploid
Meiosis Division of sex cells Stages of Meiosis I: Interphase I, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis I
Meiosis Meiosis II Interphase II, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II, cytokinesis II
Meiosis Each cell receives one chromosome from each pair randomly Resulting cells have half the normal number of Chromosomes - haploid
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Cell Structure & Function
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Prokaryote ◦ No nucleus ◦ Unicellular ◦ Example: Bacteria Eukaryote ◦ Nucleus ◦ Complex organelles ◦ Uni or multicellular ◦ Example: Us!
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