2Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in the presence of a nucleus.the makeup of their cell walls.size.the presence of a cell wall.
3Unlike eubacteria, archaebacteria have cell walls.are prokaryotes.have two cell membranes.are thought to be the ancestors of eukaryotes.
4Which of the following is NOT a way in which archaebacteria and eubacteria differ? Archaebacteria lack an important carbohydrate found in the cell walls of eubacteria.The two groups have very different membrane lipids.Archaebacteria have gene sequences that are similar to those of eukaryotes.Archaebacteria follow the lytic cycle, while eubacteria follow the lysogenic cycle.
5Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria? methanogenseubacteriaeukaryotesE. coli
6The structure in the figure represents a(an) virus.archaebacterium.methanogen.eubacterium.
7Which structure or structures shown in the figure have key differences in eubacteria and archaebacteria?A, B, CA, B, ED onlyA only
8The figure shows how prokaryotes can be identified by the composition of their cell walls.their reaction to the Gram stain.their cell shapes.their methods for obtaining energy.
9Which cell shape in the figure is called a coccus? BCnone of the above
10When treated with Gram stain, Gram-positive eubacteria appear violet.pink.yellow.orange.
11Bacilli, cocci, and spirilla are Gram stains.shapes of prokaryotes.methods of prokaryotic movement.ways that prokaryotes obtain energy.
12Which of the following is(are) used to identify prokaryotes? cell shapethe way prokaryotes movethe way prokaryotes obtain energyall of the above
13Where are you likely to find a photoautotroph? in your refrigeratorin the darkness of the oceanin your digestive systemnear the surfaces of lakes, streams, and oceans
14Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy directly from the sun.directly from inorganic molecules.indirectly from organic molecules.indirectly from other organisms.
15Most prokaryotes are heterotrophs. photoautotrophs. chemoautotrophs. photoheterotrophs.
16A method called Gram staining is used to tell what shape a prokaryote has.how a prokaryote obtains energy.what kind of cell wall a prokaryote has.whether a prokaryote has flagella.
17Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment? carrying out photosynthesisrecycling nutrientsfixing nitrogenall of the above
18Bacteria are sometimes called nature’s recyclers because they undergo conjugation.break down nutrients in dead matter.can switch between respiration and fermentation.carry out photosynthesis.
19Bacteria that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances that are taken up by plant roots are calledendospores.flagella.photoautotrophs.decomposers.
20Nitrogen fixation involves each of the following EXCEPT soybeans.Rhizobium.fertilizer.nodules on roots.
21Which of the following is produced when bacteria break down complex compounds in sewage? carbon dioxide gaspurified waternitrogenall of the above
22Humans use bacteria to clean up small oil spills. mine minerals from the ground.synthesize drugs.all of the above
23Bacteria living in extreme environments may be a good source of antibiotics.heat-stable enzymes.nitrogen-fixing bacteria.Gram stains.
24The outer protein coat of a virus is called a DNA core.capsid.bacteriophage.tail sheath.
25All viruses are made of proteins and nucleic acids.prophages.bacteriophages.endospores.
26A viral capsid functions to bind the virus to the surface of a host cell.transcribe viral genes.force a host cell to make copies of the virus.destroy a host cell.
27The instructions for making new copies of a virus are a part of a virus’s capsid.coded in surface proteins attached to the protein coat.coded in either RNA or DNA.found only in bacteriophages.
28What is the basic structure of a virus? DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coata capsid surrounded by a protein coata tail sheath surrounded by tail fibersa tiny cell surrounded by a cell wall
29Viruses are all about the same size. vary greatly in size and structure.rarely contain DNA or RNA.can be seen with a basic compound light microscope.
30A lytic infection concludes with the embedding of viral DNA into the host cell’s DNA.production of a prophage.bursting of the host cell.production of messenger RNA.
31A prophage is made of bacteriophages. carbohydrates. capsid proteins. viral DNA.
32Bacteriophages infect other viruses.bacteria only.any available host cell.cells undergoing the lytic cycle.
33Unlike lytic viruses, lysogenic viruses do NOT inject their genetic material into the host cell.enter the lytic cycle.lyse the host cell right away.infect host cells.
34During a lytic infection, the host cell is destroyed.prepared for the lysogenic cycle.copied many times over.all of the above
35Which of the following is a way that bacteria cause disease? by capsidsby nitrogen fixationby conjugationby releasing toxins
36Bacteria that cause disease are called viruses.pathogens.endospores.antibiotics.
37A bacterial infection results when bacteria break down the body’s tissues.lyse following the lytic cycle.live as obligate aerobes in the absence of oxygen.undergo conjugation inside the body.
38Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium? tooth decaytuberculosisAIDSLyme disease
39Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food die at low temperatures.take longer to multiply at low temperatures.require light to live.grow more slowly in the dark.
40Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control? Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods.Most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals.Most bacteria form endospores when subjected to harsh conditions.Most bacteria do not cause food to spoil.
41Which of the following will NOT kill bacteria? refrigerationboilingchemical disinfectionfrying
42Which of the following is a proper use of disinfectants? as an antibioticto start conjugationto sterilize a hospitalto preserve foods
43Which of the following is NOT a viral disease? botulismAIDSmeaslespolio
44Viral diseases can betreated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines.treated with vaccines and prevented with antibiotics.prevented with antibiotics but not treated with vaccines.prevented with vaccines but not treated with antibiotics.
45Plant viruses have a difficult time entering the cells they infect partly because plant viruses are weaker than animal viruses.plant cells have tough cell walls.many plant viruses are spread by insects.plant viruses do not have a protein coat.
46Viruses cause disease by producing toxins that harm the body.reproducing independently inside the body.forming endospores in the body.disrupting the body’s normal equilibrium.
47Scientists reason that archaebacteria may be the ancestors of eukaryotes. If this is true, then archaebacteria and eukaryotes share a common ancestor that is more recent than the common ancestor of archaebacteria and eubacteria.TrueFalse
48Many archaebacteria live in extreme environments, such as in Utah’s Great Salt Lake. TrueFalse
49The figure shows the three shapes of viruses. TrueFalse
50The spiral-shaped organism labeled B in the figure is an example of a spirillum. TrueFalse
51The Gram-staining method applies only to archaebacteria. TrueFalse
52Plants and animals benefit from nitrogen-fixing bacteria. TrueFalse
53Bacteria can be used to synthesize drugs through genetic-engineering techniques. TrueFalse
54Bacteria are used in the production of a variety of foods and beverages. TrueFalse