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LOGO Birthday Seminar “The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe” Madrasah and University: Knowledge as Identity and Legitimacy 25th october, Brussels.

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Presentation on theme: "LOGO Birthday Seminar “The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe” Madrasah and University: Knowledge as Identity and Legitimacy 25th october, Brussels."— Presentation transcript:

1 LOGO Birthday Seminar “The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe” Madrasah and University: Knowledge as Identity and Legitimacy 25th october, Brussels Coimbra Group 25th Anniversary 1 Miguel Á. Manzano Rodríguez University of Salamanca

2 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe Universitas 1 Islamic education / Madrasah — مدرسة th Anniversaire Coimbra Group

3 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 3 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group M UNICIPALITIES S TUDIUM G ENERALE U NIVERSITATES Cathedral schools

4 ALMAE MATRES SCIENCE DIALECTICAL WEAPON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE God’s plan Revealed Truth Universitates The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group 4 KNOWLEDGE

5 scientific methods power of reason dialectical weapon Christian truth K NOWLEDGE R OGER B ACON (1294) R AMÓN DE P ENYAFORT (1275) R AMÓN M ARTÍ (ca. 1286) T HOMAS A QUINAS (1274) R AMÓN L LUL (1315) 5 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Universitates

6 KNOWLEDGE Universitates The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group 6 K INGS M ONARCHY P OPES C HURCH Revealed Truth Science —Wisdom Revealed Truth Science —Wisdom Alfonso X (The Wise) Louis IX (Saint)

7 pauperes dives The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group W ISDOM illitterati litterati W EALTH 7 Rex illiteratus est quasi asinus coronatus

8 1 S ACERDOTIUM R EGNUM S TUDIUM 2 3 A LEXANDER V ON R OES (13 th Century) I MAGO S APIENTIAE KNOWLEDGE AS SOURCE OF POWER 8 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group

9 من خرج في طلب العلم فهو في سبيل الله حتى يرجع He who goes forth in search of knowledge is in the way of Allāh till he returns من خرج في طلب العلم فهو في سبيل الله حتى يرجع He who goes forth in search of knowledge is in the way of Allāh till he returns طلب العلم فريضة على كل مسلــــــــم The seeking of knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim طلب العلم فريضة على كل مسلــــــــم The seeking of knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim إن العلماء ورثة الأنبيـــــــــاء The wise men are the heirs of the Prophets إن العلماء ورثة الأنبيـــــــــاء The wise men are the heirs of the Prophets 9 Islamic education / Madrasah — مدرسة 2 Knowledge In Islam Knowledge In Islam The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group

10 Knowledgeالعلم الله — G od prescribes Science of Religion Wise men ʿ Ulamā ʾ Koran, Ḥ adīt… The šarī ʿ a — الشريعة 10 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group

11 + K ORAN القرآن Ḥ ADĪ Ṯ ا لحديث A RABIC L ANGUAGE العربية I SLAMIC L AW F IQH — الفقه Religious Science ʿ ILM — العلم Religious Science ʿ ILM — العلم ʿ Ulamā ʾ ʿ Ulamā ʾ — العلماء The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group 11

12 Mosquee المسجد Prophet Mu ḥ ammad and a circle of believers Prophet Mu ḥ ammad and a circle of believers ʿ Ulamā ʾ as teachers: Koran, Ḥ adī ṯ, Arabic Language and Islamic Law (Fiqh) ʿ Ulamā ʾ as teachers: Koran, Ḥ adī ṯ, Arabic Language and Islamic Law (Fiqh) Philology, Arithmetic, Astronomy, Medicine… 12 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Islamic Traditional Education

13 13 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Mosque-college المسجد خان Place to pray and to teach / be taught. Rooms where students from other cities stay Place to pray and to teach / be taught. Rooms where students from other cities stay Badr b. Ḥ asanawayh (10th century / Islamic East) Islamic Traditional Education Prophet Mu ḥ ammad and a circle of believers Prophet Mu ḥ ammad and a circle of believers Mosquee المسجد

14 Mosque-college المسجد خان 14 Islamic Traditional Education The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Madrasahالمدرسة Private donations / foundations (waqf — وقف ) Ni ẓ ām al-Mulk — al-Ni ẓ āmiyya (11th century / Islamic East) Basically Islamic Law (fiqh) Prophet Mu ḥ ammad and a circle of believers Prophet Mu ḥ ammad and a circle of believers Mosquee المسجد

15 15 Islamic Traditional Education The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Madrasahالمدرسة The Marīnids — Morocco (13th century / Islamic West) Publice donations / foundations (waqf — وقف ) Sultans need the ʿ ulamā ʾ («the heirs of the Prophets»)

16 The ʿ ulamā ʾ were a symbol of the Islamic Tradition The sultan was educated by the ʿ ulamā ʾ The sultan became one of the ʿ ulamā ʾ Possesion of knowledge and religious science العلم العلم The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group 16 IslamicLegitimacyIslamicLegitimacy Controlled state education in madrasahs and mosquees

17 Submissive students Static knowledge The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Science – dialogue in other lands Source of knowledge M ADRASA المدرسة 17 ʿ Ulamā ʾ against the system S TUDY T RIP الرحلة

18 Individual nature of Islamic education Master / Teacher I ǧ āza — إجازة Disciple / Scholar knowledge became hereditary distortion of the i ǧ āzas personal relation two people master / teacher essential 18 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe 25 th Anniversaire Coimbra Group

19 The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe th Anniversaire Coimbra Group Make the most of your classes to study your science, and see the discussion with that who learns as a notice of what you still have to learn (Al- Ḫ alīl b. A ḥ mad) Make the most of your classes to study your science, and see the discussion with that who learns as a notice of what you still have to learn (Al- Ḫ alīl b. A ḥ mad) اجعل تعليمك دراسة لعلمك، واجعا مناظرة المتعلم تنبيها لك على ما ليس عندك )الخليل بن أحمد( اجعل تعليمك دراسة لعلمك، واجعا مناظرة المتعلم تنبيها لك على ما ليس عندك )الخليل بن أحمد(

20 LOGO 20 Thank You! Birthday Seminar “The Forgotten Origins of Universities in Europe” Coimbra Group 25 th Anniversary 25th october, Brussels Miguel Á. Manzano Rodríguez University of Salamanca


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