Presentation on theme: "Good Enough Governance Revised -Merilee S. Grindle"— Presentation transcript:
1Good Enough Governance Revised -Merilee S. Grindle Review Presentation onGood Enough Governance Revised -Merilee S. GrindleByMd. Hedaietul Islam MondolGPP13, MPA 5th BatchCIVIL SERVICE COLLEGE, DHEKA
2This article is a part of Development Policy Review, 2007,25(5):Merilee S. Grindle is Edward S. Mason Professor of International Development & Director, David Rockfeller Centre for Latin American Studies, Harvard UniversityThe author studies a huge number of books and write this article. (reference shown)Author first introduced the concept of good enough governance in a paper prepared for World Bank in for an analysis of the development of the concept of governance, see Hewitt de Alcantara (1998)
3Some articleThis concept provide a platform for institutional changes and capacity-building deemed important for development.What specifically, needs to be done in any real world context to move towards better governance in particular country contextFeasibility of particular interventions can be assessed by analyzing for change and implications of the content of intervention being considered.
4Introduction@article Getting good governance calls for improvements that touch virtually all aspects of public sector- for economic and political interaction, to decision making structures, manage administrative systems and deliver goods and services to citizen, staff government bureaucracies, to the interface of officials and citizens in political and bureaucratic arenas.Advocating good governance arises a host of questions about what needs to be done, when its need to be done, and how it needs to be done.
5Contd.Good enough governance, as a concept, suggests that not at all governance deficits to (or can) be tackled at once, and that institutions and capacity-building are products of time.Good enough governance means that interventions thought to contribute to the ends of economic and political development need to be questioned, prioritized, and made relevant to the conditions of individual countries. They need to be assessed in the light of historical evidence, sequence, and timing, and they should be selected carefully in terms of their contributions to particular end such as poverty reduction and democracy.Good enough governance necessary to allow political and economic development to occur.
6The article addresses the gaps that exist between the general mandate to improve governance for development and the dilemmas facing development professionals designing specific intervention; concept and practice.The article includes a framework for assessing both contextual and content-related factors at the same time.
7Thinking about good governance: dilemmas and debates The definition of governance to that good governance, normative views of what `ought to be’ become even more prominent. Yet definitions vary in the degree to which they imply particular policies or policy outcomes- stable macroeconomic policy, reduction of poverty, openness to trade, decentralization, or efficient revenue collection, or particular institutional forms and process- democracy, widespread participation in development decision making, or strong legislature. Moreover, it is often not clear how governance can be distinguished from development itself.What is the relationship between good governance, on the one hand, and economic and political development, on the other?
8Definition @ governance & good governance sourceWhat is governance?What is good governance?World BankThe process and institutions through which decisions are made and authority in a country is exercised.voice and accountability , lack of violence, stability; regulatory framework, government effectiveness, respect for institution, control of corruption, rule of lawUNDPExercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country`s affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes, & institutions through which citizens & groups articulate their interests, exercise legal rights, meet obligations and mediate their differences.Characterized as participatory, transparent… accountable..effective and equitable… promotes the rule of law..ensure that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that voice s of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decision-making over the allocation of development resourcesContd..
9IMFLimited to economic aspects of governance… improving the management of public resources; supporting development and maintenance of a transparent and stable economic and regulatory environment conducive to efficient private sector activities.Ensuring the rule of law, improving the efficiency and accountability of the public sector, and tackling corruption.DFIDHow the institutions, rules and systems of the state – the executive, legislature, judiciary and military- operate at central and local level and how the state relates to individual citizens, civil society and the private sector.Seven key governance capabilities: to operate political systems which provide opportunities for all people….to influence government policy and practice; to provide macroeconomic stability..to promote the growth necessary to reduce poverty; to implement pro-poor policy; to guarantee the equitable and universal provision of effective basic services; ensure personal safety and security… to manage national security arrangement accountably; to develop honest and accountable government.
10Cont.USAIDThe ability of government to develop an efficient, effective and accountable public management process that is open to citizen participation and that strengthens rather than weakens a democratic system of government.Democratic governance,: transparency, participation, representation, accountability; focusing on: legislative strengthening, decentralization and democratic local governance, anti-corruption, civil-military relations and improving policy implementation.Hyden et al.The formation and stewardship of the formal and informal rules that regulate the public realm, the arena in which state as well as economic and societal actors interact to make decisions.Can be measured in 5 dimension (participation, fairness, decency, efficiency, accountability, & transparency) in six arenas (civil society, political society, government, bureaucracy, economic society, judiciary)Kauf-mannExercise of authority-1) process of selecting, monitoring & replacing govt., 2)capacity to formulate and implement sound policies & deliver public services; 3) respect of citizens , govern economic & social interactions among themMeasured along 6 dimensions- voice & external accountability; political stability & lack of violence, crime and terrorism; government effectiveness; lack of regulatory burden; rule of law; control of corruption.
11cont Hewitt de Alcanatara Exercise of authority within a given sphere…. Efficient management of a broad range of organizations and activities… involves building consensus, or obtaining the consent or acquiescence necessary to carry out a program, in an arena where many different interests are at play.Process through which there is incorporation of more creative and less technical understanding of reform, more dialogue about institutional and programmatic change, more concern with the public sphere (state and civil society) and how to strengthen it, more integration of economic policy and institutional reform, more attention to both national and international factors that affect governance.
12Large-N cross national research Large-N studies tend to find consistent correlations between development & good governance.In general regressional analyses of cross country data indicate significant correlations, confirming the following high-order generalization:Institutional development contributes to growth and growth contributes to institutional development (Chong & Calderon, Levin)Institutional efficiency reduces poverty (Chong & Calderon)Weberian characteristics of public bureaucracies are strongly associated with growth (Evans & Rauch)Growth & investment are increased in the presence of institutions to protect property right (Knack & Keefer)Government credibility contributes to investment and growth (Brunetti et al) cont.
13Cont`d6. Aid assists growth in contexts in which there is good economic management (Burnside & Dollar) 7. Unstable political contexts are associated with lower levels of investment (Barro) 8. Corruption is associated with ineffective government and low growth (Friedman et al) 9. Fiscal decentralization is positively correlated with good governance (Huther & Shah) 10. Good governance makes development possible (Kaufmann & Kraay) 11. Good governance is crucial for successful development as measured by high per capita income. Per capita income is a strong predictor of poverty rates, infant mortality & illiteracy, suggesting that good governance improves the well-being of the poor. (World Bank review)
14A case studyChina & Vietnam are frequent examples of countries that have made major gains in economic development and poverty reduction in the presence of many characteristic of bad governance among which insecure property rights and contracts are particular apparent (Quian)
15From ambiguity to practice Development practice is increasingly sensitive to the content of governance programs- often overlooked in academic research and official discourse- focusing on the varying requirements for implementing different kind of interventions. More attention needs to be given to the issue of which reforms are practicable and important in particular contexts.(Government intervention ) some tools acknowledge the importance of beginning where the country is and taking seriously the need to asses priorities and capabilities of different countries; they also require serious efforts to understand the organizational, behavioral, and time dimensions of particular interventions.
16Assessing the context for interventions: what is there to build on? Interventions that are appropriate for specific situations can be more easily identified. Two analytical frameworks are helpful in this regard: one that focuses on assessing the strengths and weaknesses of states and one that provides insight into the sources of change that might exist in particular environments.Institutions are political, taxation, police, public service reforms etc.
17Typology of political systems, regimes & capacities Type of political systemscharacteristicsInstitutional stability of the stateOrganizational capacity of the stateDegree of state legitimacyTypes of policies in placeCollapsed state (Iraq, Somalia, Afghanistan)No effective central governmentExtremely low. No effective rulesExtremely low. Difficult to identify capacity to produce resultsLow to non-existent. Those who wield power r outside the stateNo policiesPersonal rule (Guinea, Libya, Turkmenistan)Rule through personalities; political parties based on personalDepend on personal control of power; conflict who controls the stateLow. Respond to personal & shifting priorities of powerful elites.Low. Who has right to use power; power is used for personal wealth creation.Policies r unstable; few public service are providedMinimally institutionalized states (Kenya, Paraguay, Indonesia)An unstable mixture of personal & impersonal rule with legitimacy. Parties are based partly on personalities.Basic rules are established in law & practice; although function poorly & intermittently.Low/modest. Some organization that’s are able to carry out responsibilities on a sustained basis.Low/modest. Conflict over right to wield power persists in absence of consensus about institutions for resolving conflict.organizations to provide a range of basic public & welfare services; coverage is patchy and often based on patronage.
18Typology of political systems, regimes & capacities Type of political systemscharacteristicsInstitutional stability of the stateOrganizational capacity of the stateDegree of state legitimacyTypes of policies in placeInstitutionalized non-competitive states (North Korea, Vietnam, China)Rule through stable & legitimate organizations & procedures: no open competition for power, political parties serve the regime & controlled by it.Clear rules & generally orderly processes of decision-making & public management ; centralized & authoritarian practices.Modest. Many organization carry out routine activities on a sustained basis.Modest. Day-to-day legitimacy to carry on activities, but often in the presence of major questioning of roots of legitimacy not based on consent.A wide range of basic and welfare services may be provided, but citizens have little influence over the range & type of provision.Institutionalized competitive states (South Africa, India, Chile)Rule through stable & legitimate organization; open competition for power through partiesRules widely recognized as legitimate & no significant change; conflict resolved through appeal to the rules.High. Organizations challenged to improve performance on a sustained basis.High. Legitimacy to make decisions & wield power persists in which there is disagreement on decisions on the use of powerA wide range of basic & welfare services. The range & type of provision are major themes in politics
19Is there a hierarchy of governance priorities? Governance CharacteristicsCollapsed statesPersonal rule minimallyInstitutionalized statesInstitutionalized non-competitive statesPersonal safety ensuredPBasic conflict resolution systems in place and functioningWidespread agreement on basic rules of the game for political successionGovernment able to carry out basic administrative taskspGovernment able to ensure basic services to most of the population
20Is there a hierarchy of governance priorities? Governance CharacteristicsCollapsed statesPersonal rule minimallyInstitutionalized statesInstitutionalized non-competitive statesInstitutionalized competitive statesGovernment able to ensure equality/fairness in justice & access to servicePOpen government decision-making/implementation processesGovernment responsive to input from organized groups, citizen participationGovernment fully accountable for its decisions and their consequencespNote: P= priority
21The World Bank`s Criteria for Country Policy & Institutional Assessment Economic ManagementMacroeconomic managementFiscal policyDebt policyB. Structural policies4. Trade5. Financial sector6. Business regulatory environmentC. Policies for social inclusion/equity7. Gender equality8. Equity of public resource use9. Building human resource10. Social protection and labour11. Policies and institutions for environmental sustainabilityD. public-sector management & institution12. Poverty rights and rule-based governance13. Quality of budgetary and financial management14. Efficiency of revenue mobilization15. Quality of public administration16. Transparency, accountability and corruption in the public sector
22Ease/difficulty of governance interventions (Example: police professionalization in country X as part of rule of law governance reform)InterventionDegree of conflict likelyTime required for institutionalizationOrganizational complexityLogistical complexityBudgetary requirementsAmount of behavioral change requiredIncrease salaries of policeLowmediumPolice training in conflict resolutionMedMed/highCivil service test for policeHighhighCommunity boards to monitor police behaviorIntroduce performance-based management system
23Is there room for manoeuvre in the process of change? Literature that focuses on reform episodes strongly suggests that this is a fundamental characteristic of successful efforts at change – even, for example, in rebuilding collapsed states – and that little can be achieved in its absence.For reforms leader and their supportersContext and contentPractitioners and activitiesChoice & policiesInvestment of time & resources
24Conclusion: expectation about improving governance Development researchers remain far from a consensus on the relationship between development & good governance, and they continue to disagree on issues related to methodology and inference. Governance is often seen to be essential to and causal of development. Others move past the causal and inferential debates to demonstrate that governance challenges are exacerbated by factors such as HIV/AIDS and donor dependence.cont
25Cont`dGood governance can not be very reassuring to those who have to develop priorities about what should be done in practice and how scare resources- of funds, organizational capacity, human skill knowledge, leadership- should be allocated.The current good governance agenda is additive rather than analytic (author`s suggested). As a consequence , development practitioners- whether development advisers, leaders of NGOs, or government officials- continue to confront long lists of `things that must be done’ to achieve good governance. Practitioners can increase the capacity to make decisions about `what to do’ in particular countries.Analyses suggest a difficult but inescapable conclusion: the more improved governance is needed, the more difficult it is to achieve good enough governance.The task of research and practice is to find opportunities, shorts of a magic bullets, for moving in a positive direction, yet recognizing that this is not always possible.