Presentation on theme: "Analysis of Governance in Agriculture – A conceptual Framework and Applications Suresh Babu International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC."— Presentation transcript:
1Analysis of Governance in Agriculture – A conceptual Framework and Applications Suresh BabuInternational Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DCDevi Prasad JuvvadiCenter for Good Governance, HyderabadInternational Conference on "Governance and Service Delivery in Agriculture and Allied Sectors"International Conference on"Governance and Service Delivery in Agriculture and Allied Sectors"Hyderabad, December 18, 2014
2This presentation will cover Emerging Issues in Agricultural Development and Why Governance in Agriculture is importantDefinitions of Governance applied to agricultureA conceptual framework for Analysis Governance in AgricultureApplications to Agricultural Development ChallengesSpecific Priorities and ConstraintsConcluding Remarks
3Emerging Issues Recent Food Crisis and Food price volatility Sustainable Production SystemsClimate Smart AgricultureAgricultural – Nutrition- Health LinkagesImproving Markets and Trade in AgricultureBuilding Resilience in Food and Agriculture SystemsStrengthening Institutions and GovernanceResolving these require Good Governance
4Why study governance in agriculture? Poor governance in various subsectors stifle progress in agriculture developmentLarge wastage of resources prevention spending on productive investmentsLow morality of the public servantsLow quality of inputs – seeds and fertilizers to the farmersLow standards and marketing regulations increase transaction costs and reduces income of the farmersPoor regulation of food safety laws affect consumersUnorganized regulatory system for biotechnology affects adoption of new technologiesMore examples could be said that are context specific.
5Definitions of Governance Several Definitions Exist:Governance as the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development. (Asian Development Bank)
6Overseas Development institute definition Formation and stewardship of the formal and informal rules that regulate the environment in which state and other players interact to make decisions (ODI).
7UNDP definitionGovernance is the exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs including mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their (UNDP)
8World bank definitionTraditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised such as selection of governments, capacity to formulate and implement policies and the respect for institutions that govern the interactions of the state and its citizens (World Bank).
9Agricultural Governance involves Agricultural development process which improves:Organization and management of InstitutionsEffective functioning of the institutionsDesign and implementation of policiesDevelopment of rules and regulations to support policies and lawsEnsuring active participation of all stakeholders at all levels
10Major Principles of Good Governance (UNDP) ParticipationConsensus-orientationAccountabilityTransparencyResponsivenessEquity and inclusivenessEffectiveness and efficiencyConsistency with the rule of law.
11Indicators of good governance Voice and accountabilityPolitical stability and absence of violenceGovernment effectivenessRegulatory qualityRule of lawControl of corruptionSource: Kraufmann, D. & Kraay, A Growth without governance. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No
12Governance in Agriculture Agricultural Governance depends on the governance of various sub sectorsLand sectorInput supply systems – eg: seed, fertilizer, mechanizationOutput marketing systemsMarket institutionsFood processing sectorFood safety systemsAgricultural education institutionsAgricultural research institutionsAgricultural extension institutions
14An Hypothetical example for developing an Agricultural Governance index Enlist different sub sectors of the agricultureApply a set of indicators of governance to each of them – a range from 0-1Conduct a key informants interviews to find out the values of the indicatorsCombine them to form an index at the sub sector levelCombine the sub sector indexes into aggregate level Agricultural Governance IndexAn example is given next – could be done for comparing – districts, states, countries.
16International level National level Public Sector / Government Levels of AnalysisInternational levelNational levelPublic Sector / GovernmentPrivate sectorCivil societyLocal level
17Thematic Approach to Measuring Agriculture Governance – Applications to Agricultural Development Challenges
18Governance for sustainable food production Governance for global understanding and debate of issues and agenda settingGovernance of groups working on specific emerging challenges – Eg: climate changeSupporting the CAADP frameworkGlobal and National governance of technology development -Biotechnology and BiosafetyGlobal and national governance of Natural resource degradation
19Governance for Promoting healthy food systems Governance of development and adoption of nutrient enhanced cropsGovernance of agriculture –Nutrition – Health LinkagesGovernance of new nutrition initiatives: how repetitive they are and compete for resourcesGovernance of steering smallholder sector to the Nutrition Objectives – local, national , global levels
20Governance for improving markets and trade Governance of food markets – National and international market regimes –eg: WTOGovernance in innovation marketing –eg: Reducing information asymmetries via contract farmingGlobal and National governance for managing food price spikes and volatilityGovernance of new markets for supporting smallholder farmers in the event of climate change – eg: Insurance markets
21Governance for agriculture transformation Governance for transformation of small farms: eg: business orientation of small farmsGovernance of Mechanization : eg: medium-scale farms transformationSupporting the CAADP frameworkGovernance for promoting transformation at the regional and global levels eg: CAADPGovernance of development of Value chains: eg: retail food markets
22Governance for building resilient food systems Governance though decentralization: can it improve resilience of local food systems ?Governance of Transfer modalities: Cash, food, or vouchers?Governance for Emergency responses – information – early warning - Targeted transfers for emergenciesGovernance of interventions and resilience in conflict zones
23Strengthening institutions for improved governance Governance of Knowledge flow – evidence based policy making and policy processGovernance for creating and nurturing new institutions : Eg farmer cooperativesGovernance to promote gender mainstreaming in agricultureGovernance for improved rural service delivery
25Specific challengesLack of understanding of the concepts of Governance and it implicationsNo serious efforts to measure or monitor the governance indicators to compare progress temporally and spatiallySpecific subsectors may pull down overall governance – need for closer look beyond sectoral levelLack of quality research and outreach to engage policy makers
26Concluding remarksLittle effort has been made to apply Governance Concepts in agricultureNeed to integrate broader governance goals in the agriculture sector – problems are diverse and sub sectors are multipleApply the concepts to identify the governance gaps in various indicators and subsectors – conceptual framework is presentedFurther emerging thematic areas require governance research at all levels – global, national, local.