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Chapter Three Political Culture and Political Socialization Political Culture and Political Socialization Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Three Political Culture and Political Socialization Political Culture and Political Socialization Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Three Political Culture and Political Socialization Political Culture and Political Socialization Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell, Dalton & Strøm Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2008

2 Political Culture and Political Socialization  Each nation has its own political norms that influence how people think and act about politics.  The way political institutions function at least partially reflects the public’s attitudes, norms, and expectations.  Political culture: public attitudes toward politics and their role within the political system  Political socialization: how individuals form their political attitudes and thus, collectively, how citizens form their political culture; we conclude by describing the major trends in political culture in the world politics today  Each nation has its own political norms that influence how people think and act about politics.  The way political institutions function at least partially reflects the public’s attitudes, norms, and expectations.  Political culture: public attitudes toward politics and their role within the political system  Political socialization: how individuals form their political attitudes and thus, collectively, how citizens form their political culture; we conclude by describing the major trends in political culture in the world politics today

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4 Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture  A nation’s political culture includes its citizens’ orientations at three levels:  The political system  The political and policymaking process  Policy outputs and outcomes  A nation’s political culture includes its citizens’ orientations at three levels:  The political system  The political and policymaking process  Policy outputs and outcomes

5 Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture  The system level involves how people view the values and organizations that comprise the political system.  The process level includes expectations of how politics should function and individuals’ relationship to the political process.  The policy level deals with the public’s policy expectations for the government.  The system level involves how people view the values and organizations that comprise the political system.  The process level includes expectations of how politics should function and individuals’ relationship to the political process.  The policy level deals with the public’s policy expectations for the government.

6 The System Level  It is difficult for any political system to endure if it lacks the support of its citizens.  Feelings of national pride are considered an affective, emotional tie to a political system.  It is difficult for any political system to endure if it lacks the support of its citizens.  Feelings of national pride are considered an affective, emotional tie to a political system.

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8 The System Level  Feelings of popular legitimacy are another foundation for a successful political system.  Citizens may grant legitimacy to a government for different reasons.  Tradition, ideology, elections, or religion  In systems with low legitimacy, people often resort to violence or extra-governmental actions to solve political disagreements.  Feelings of popular legitimacy are another foundation for a successful political system.  Citizens may grant legitimacy to a government for different reasons.  Tradition, ideology, elections, or religion  In systems with low legitimacy, people often resort to violence or extra-governmental actions to solve political disagreements.

9 The Process Level  The second level of the political culture involves what the public expects of the political process.  Broadly speaking, three different patterns describe the citizens’ role in the political process.  Participants are involved as actual or potential participants in the political process.  Subjects passively obey government officials and the law, but they do not vote or actively involve themselves in politics.  Parochials are hardly aware of government and politics.  The second level of the political culture involves what the public expects of the political process.  Broadly speaking, three different patterns describe the citizens’ role in the political process.  Participants are involved as actual or potential participants in the political process.  Subjects passively obey government officials and the law, but they do not vote or actively involve themselves in politics.  Parochials are hardly aware of government and politics.

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11 The Process Level  Hypothetical examples: How are citizen types distributed within these examples?  Modern industrial democracy  Industrialized authoritarian society  Authoritarian society that is party traditional and partly modern  Democratic pre-industrial system  How does social and economic modernization affect the distribution of citizen types and the political norms of a system?  What has been the nature of modernization across the world?  Hypothetical examples: How are citizen types distributed within these examples?  Modern industrial democracy  Industrialized authoritarian society  Authoritarian society that is party traditional and partly modern  Democratic pre-industrial system  How does social and economic modernization affect the distribution of citizen types and the political norms of a system?  What has been the nature of modernization across the world?

12 The Policy Level  What is the appropriate role of government?  Policy expectations vary across the globe.  Some policy goals such as economic well-being are valued by nearly everyone.  Variation in terms of what is expected relates to a nation’s circumstances and cultural traditions.  One of the basic measures of government performance is its ability to meet the policy expectations of its citizens.  Expectations regarding the functioning of government: outputs (providing welfare and security) or process features (rule of law and procedural justice)  What is the appropriate role of government?  Policy expectations vary across the globe.  Some policy goals such as economic well-being are valued by nearly everyone.  Variation in terms of what is expected relates to a nation’s circumstances and cultural traditions.  One of the basic measures of government performance is its ability to meet the policy expectations of its citizens.  Expectations regarding the functioning of government: outputs (providing welfare and security) or process features (rule of law and procedural justice)

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14 Consensual or Conflictual Political Cultures  When a country is deeply divided in its political values and these differences persist over time, distinctive political subcultures may develop.  They have sharply different points of view on some critical political matters, such as the boundaries of the nation, the nature of the regime, or the correct ideology.  Sometimes historical or social factors will generate different cultural trajectories.  Ethnic, religious, or linguistic identities  Migration  When a country is deeply divided in its political values and these differences persist over time, distinctive political subcultures may develop.  They have sharply different points of view on some critical political matters, such as the boundaries of the nation, the nature of the regime, or the correct ideology.  Sometimes historical or social factors will generate different cultural trajectories.  Ethnic, religious, or linguistic identities  Migration

15 Why Culture Matters  Cultural norms typically change slowly and reflect stable values.  It encapsulates the history, traditions, and values of a society.  Congruence theory  The distribution of cultural patterns is typically related to the type of political process that citizens expect and support.  Do democracies create a participatory democratic public, or does a political culture lead to a democratic political system?  It works both ways.  Political culture can build common political community, but it can also have the power to divide.  Cultural norms typically change slowly and reflect stable values.  It encapsulates the history, traditions, and values of a society.  Congruence theory  The distribution of cultural patterns is typically related to the type of political process that citizens expect and support.  Do democracies create a participatory democratic public, or does a political culture lead to a democratic political system?  It works both ways.  Political culture can build common political community, but it can also have the power to divide.

16 Political Socialization  Political cultures are sustained or changed as people acquire their attitudes and values.  Political socialization refers to the way in which political values are formed and political culture is transmitted from one generation to the next.  Most children acquire their basic political values and behavior patters at a relatively early age.  Some attitudes will evolve and change throughout life.  Political cultures are sustained or changed as people acquire their attitudes and values.  Political socialization refers to the way in which political values are formed and political culture is transmitted from one generation to the next.  Most children acquire their basic political values and behavior patters at a relatively early age.  Some attitudes will evolve and change throughout life.

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18 Political Socialization  Three general points about socialization:  Socialization can occur in different ways.  Direct socialization  Socialization is a lifelong process.  Patterns of socialization can be either unifying or divisive.  Three general points about socialization:  Socialization can occur in different ways.  Direct socialization  Socialization is a lifelong process.  Patterns of socialization can be either unifying or divisive.

19 Agents of Political Socialization  Individuals, organizations, and institutions that influence political attitudes.  Family  Schools  Religious institutions  Fundamentalism  Peer groups  Social class  Interest groups  Political parties  Mass media  Global influence; most people in the world watch television to learn about the world  Individuals, organizations, and institutions that influence political attitudes.  Family  Schools  Religious institutions  Fundamentalism  Peer groups  Social class  Interest groups  Political parties  Mass media  Global influence; most people in the world watch television to learn about the world

20 Direct Contact with the Government  In modern societies, the wide scope of governmental activities bring citizens into frequent contact with bureaucratic agencies.  Personal experiences are powerful agents of socialization.  In modern societies, the wide scope of governmental activities bring citizens into frequent contact with bureaucratic agencies.  Personal experiences are powerful agents of socialization.

21 Trends Shaping Contemporary Political Cultures  Democratization  Marketization  Greater public acceptance of free markets and private profit incentives, rather than a government-managed economy  Globalization  Democratization  Marketization  Greater public acceptance of free markets and private profit incentives, rather than a government-managed economy  Globalization

22 Trends Shaping Contemporary Political Cultures  Political culture is not a static phenomenon.  Encompasses how the agents of political socialization communicate and interpret historic events and traditional values  Important to understand  Influences how citizens act, how the political process functions, and what policy goals the government pursues  Political culture is not a static phenomenon.  Encompasses how the agents of political socialization communicate and interpret historic events and traditional values  Important to understand  Influences how citizens act, how the political process functions, and what policy goals the government pursues


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