2Political Culture and Political Socialization Each nation has its own political norms that influence how people think and act about politics.The way political institutions function at least partially reflects the public’s attitudes, norms, and expectations.Political culture: public attitudes toward politics and their role within the political systemPolitical socialization: how individuals form their political attitudes and thus, collectively, how citizens form their political culture; we conclude by describing the major trends in political culture in the world politics today
4Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture A nation’s political culture includes its citizens’ orientations at three levels:The political systemThe political and policymaking processPolicy outputs and outcomes
5Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture The system level involves how people view the values and organizations that comprise the political system.The process level includes expectations of how politics should function and individuals’ relationship to the political process.The policy level deals with the public’s policy expectations for the government.
6The System LevelIt is difficult for any political system to endure if it lacks the support of its citizens.Feelings of national pride are considered an affective, emotional tie to a political system.
8The System LevelFeelings of popular legitimacy are another foundation for a successful political system.Citizens may grant legitimacy to a government for different reasons.Tradition, ideology, elections, or religionIn systems with low legitimacy, people often resort to violence or extra-governmental actions to solve political disagreements.
9The Process LevelThe second level of the political culture involves what the public expects of the political process.Broadly speaking, three different patterns describe the citizens’ role in the political process.Participants are involved as actual or potential participants in the political process.Subjects passively obey government officials and the law, but they do not vote or actively involve themselves in politics.Parochials are hardly aware of government and politics.
11The Process LevelHypothetical examples: How are citizen types distributed within these examples?Modern industrial democracyIndustrialized authoritarian societyAuthoritarian society that is party traditional and partly modernDemocratic pre-industrial systemHow does social and economic modernization affect the distribution of citizen types and the political norms of a system?What has been the nature of modernization across the world?
12The Policy Level What is the appropriate role of government? Policy expectations vary across the globe.Some policy goals such as economic well-being are valued by nearly everyone.Variation in terms of what is expected relates to a nation’s circumstances and cultural traditions.One of the basic measures of government performance is its ability to meet the policy expectations of its citizens.Expectations regarding the functioning of government: outputs (providing welfare and security) or process features (rule of law and procedural justice)
14Consensual or Conflictual Political Cultures When a country is deeply divided in its political values and these differences persist over time, distinctive political subcultures may develop.They have sharply different points of view on some critical political matters, such as the boundaries of the nation, the nature of the regime, or the correct ideology.Sometimes historical or social factors will generate different cultural trajectories.Ethnic, religious, or linguistic identitiesMigration
15Why Culture MattersCultural norms typically change slowly and reflect stable values.It encapsulates the history, traditions, and values of a society.Congruence theoryThe distribution of cultural patterns is typically related to the type of political process that citizens expect and support.Do democracies create a participatory democratic public, or does a political culture lead to a democratic political system?It works both ways.Political culture can build common political community, but it can also have the power to divide.
16Political Socialization Political cultures are sustained or changed as people acquire their attitudes and values.Political socialization refers to the way in which political values are formed and political culture is transmitted from one generation to the next.Most children acquire their basic political values and behavior patters at a relatively early age.Some attitudes will evolve and change throughout life.
18Political Socialization Three general points about socialization:Socialization can occur in different ways.Direct socializationSocialization is a lifelong process.Patterns of socialization can be either unifying or divisive.
19Agents of Political Socialization Individuals, organizations, and institutions that influence political attitudes.FamilySchoolsReligious institutionsFundamentalismPeer groupsSocial classInterest groupsPolitical partiesMass mediaGlobal influence; most people in the world watch television to learn about the world
20Direct Contact with the Government In modern societies, the wide scope of governmental activities bring citizens into frequent contact with bureaucratic agencies.Personal experiences are powerful agents of socialization.
21Trends Shaping Contemporary Political Cultures DemocratizationMarketizationGreater public acceptance of free markets and private profit incentives, rather than a government-managed economyGlobalization
22Trends Shaping Contemporary Political Cultures Political culture is not a static phenomenon.Encompasses how the agents of political socialization communicate and interpret historic events and traditional valuesImportant to understandInfluences how citizens act, how the political process functions, and what policy goals the government pursues