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A Divided Nation: The Civil War. What To Expect  Learning Stations Activities  Group Activities  Computer Lab  Cooperative Learning Opportunities.

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Presentation on theme: "A Divided Nation: The Civil War. What To Expect  Learning Stations Activities  Group Activities  Computer Lab  Cooperative Learning Opportunities."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Divided Nation: The Civil War

2 What To Expect  Learning Stations Activities  Group Activities  Computer Lab  Cooperative Learning Opportunities  Primary Source Activities  DBQ  PowerPoint with Discussion  Unit Assessment

3 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

4 The Precursor: Westward Expansion  Sectional Conflict - - Very Real and Very Important  Each section wanted expansion  Each wanted new states to be created in its own image  Senate Balance  Economic Motives  Merchants and Industrialists of Northeast wanted an expanding market  Free states proved to be a much better market for their products

5 The Precursor: Westward Expansion  Economic Motives  Southern Planters wanted new plantations  Why? Soil on the old plantations no longer viable year after year of the same crop (poor crop rotation)  Start a new plantation, start over  Better economic opportunities through expansion

6 The Precursor: Westward Expansion TTYN: Describe the term destiny  Within this context (westward expansion), Manifest Destiny was a term/ideology promoted by politicians to win popular support for expansionism

7 The Precursor: Westward Expansion and the effects of Manifest Destiny

8 The Precursor: Westward Expansion  The Opening of China  Opium Wars  America persuades the Chinese Emperor the same concessions as that of Britain; gave birth to the idea of enormous wealth as a result of trade w/ China  Led to the projecting of a railroad to the Pacific Coast  Each section wanted the RR to bring Chinese trade its way TTYN: How does Manifest Destiny fit into this equation? TTYN = Talk to your Neighbor

9 Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War  Arrival of James Polk as a national figure  Southern Platform (and now Polk’s) – reoccupation of Oregon and reannexation of Texas  North – “Fifty-four-forty or fight”  Eastern TX introduced cotton and plantation system  TX achieved independence in 1836  TX wanted annexation “The war was unnecessarily and unconstitutionally initiated by the President.” Abraham Lincoln, 1848

10 Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War  Polk negotiates with Britain for the Oregon Territory  Enter CA – Remember China and Manifest Destiny  1845 – TX Annexed  Mexican War  The Gadsden Purchase  Small Group Activity  “The Gadsden Purchase”  See Learning Packet Annex - To append or attach; is the permanent acquisition and incorporation of some territorial entity into another geo-political entity

11 The Wilmot Proviso “ Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said country” – Wilmot Proviso  Lands acquired from Mex. (CA, NV, UT, AZ, and NM)  1846, Wilmot Proviso passed in Congress (Northern-dominated)  Defeated in Southern-dominated Senate  The issue of slavery in the territories would become the defining issue in the years that followed

12 The Wilmot Proviso “ Neither slavery not involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said country” – Wilmot Proviso TTYN: Interpret the following quotes “…the Wilmot Proviso is an unconstitutional act that would deny Southerners the right to move freely with their property into commonly held American territory.” - John Calhoun “…while the Constitution protected slavery in the states where it already existed, we should never knowingly lend ourselves directly or indirectly, to prevent that slavery from dying a natural death – to find new places for it to live in, when it can no longer exist in the old.” - Abraham Lincoln

13 Learning Activity: “Bleeding Kansas”

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15 Learning Stations: The Compromise’s  Learning Stations - Working cooperatively, each group will rotate through the Compromises of the Civil War  Each student will complete the Compromises of the Civil War Learning Packet

16 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Henry Clay The “Great Conciliator” The “Great Compromiser”

17 SEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited: Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid. Missouri Compromise

18 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 What was going on or moving on…  Westward Expansion  The Industrial North vs. the Agrarian South  First crisis in the North-South sectionalism over the admission of Missouri  Missouri –Slave State and Maine – Free State = Balance

19 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Why the Missouri Compromise was important…

20 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Why the Missouri Compromise was important…  For the future, no other slave states should be admitted in the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri – the 36°30°  East of the line was room for two more slave states and two free states  Would stabilize the senate  Compromise would become problematic when the area west was suitable for settlement

21 Slave and Free Areas after the Missouri Compromise, 1820

22 “..the Missouri question aroused and filled me with alarm…I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our Union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much.” letter to William Short, April 11, 1820 “…like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union.” letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820 Thomas Jefferson’s Opinion What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820

23 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850  Compromise of 1850 is considered a turning point  Shifted the public emphasis from expansion to preserving the Union  May be considered the first in a chain of events of the 1850’s that led up to the Civil War  Fugitive Slave law was bitterly opposed by many throughout the North  South remains bitter over the loss of CA as slave state because there was no place for another slave state

24 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 TTYN: Interpret the following quote “I had never in my life up to this time suffered from the Slave Institution. Slavery in Virginia or Carolina was like Slavery in Africa or the Feejees, for me. There was an old fugitive law, but it had become or was fast becoming a dead letter, and, by the genius and laws of Massachusetts, inoperative. The new Bill made it operative, required me to hunt slaves, and it found citizens in Massachusetts willing to act as judges and captors. Moreover, it discloses the secret of the new times, that Slavery was no longer mendicant, but was become aggressive and dangerous.” -Ralph Waldo Emerson

25 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850

26 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 It being desirable, for the peace, concord, and harmony of the Union of these States, to settle and adjust amicably all existing questions of controversy between them arising out of the institution of slavery upon a fair, equitable and just basis: therefore, 1. Resolved, That California, with suitable boundaries, ought, upon her application to be admitted as one of the States of this Union, without the imposition by Congress of any restriction in respect to the exclusion or introduction of slavery within those boundaries. 2. Resolved, That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory acquired by the United States from the republic of Mexico… 8. Resolved, That Congress has no power to promote or obstruct the trade in slaves between the slaveholding States; but that the admission or exclusion of slaves brought from one into another of them depends exclusively upon their own particular laws.

27 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act  The Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 undid the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of  The tension between pro-slavery and free soil factions over slavery in new territories increased  Stephen Douglas' bill left the Kansas territory open to the rule of popular sovereignty.

28 What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act  In the political arena, arguments between the Democratic Party, who supported popular sovereignty and states' rights, and their opposition, the Whigs, heated up and had lasting effects leading up to the outbreak of the Civil War.  On the ground, fighting developed in "Bloody Kansas," such as John Brown's raid on Pottawattamie Creek

29 Uncle Tom’s Cabin “one of the most effective pieces of political propaganda ever produced.” - Salmon Chase

30 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

31 Martyr or Terrorist?  Small Group Reading Activity  John Brown – Martyr or Terrorist  Read the two readings on John Brown  Working cooperatively, respond to the question at the end of reading #2.  Present your remarks to class ***Refer to Notes Packet

32 MartyrTerrorist Martyr or Terrorist?

33 John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry, VA, October 1859 Martyr or Terrorist?

34 John Brown’s Raid Martyr or Terrorist?

35 “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” Martyr or Terrorist?

36 Dred Scott  Supreme Court Case - Dred Scott v. Sanford.  Who was Dred Scott?  Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri  Context of the case - appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom.  Court, led by Roger B. Taney

37 Dred Scott  7-2 decision ruled that blacks “are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word ‘citizens’ in the Constitution.”  Scott had no standing in federal court  According to Taney, neither the Declaration of Independence nor the Constitution had been intended to apply to blacks.  “So far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect”

38 Dred Scott  In March of 1857, the United States Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States.  The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permitting slavery in all of the country's territories.  Taney - Congress had exceeded its authority when if forbade slavery…for slaves were private property protected by the Constitution.

39 Dred Scott  Who was Roger B. Taney - - a staunch supporter of slavery and intent on protecting southerners from northern aggression

40 Dred Scott Reaction  Abolitionists were incensed  Although disappointed, Frederick Douglass, found a bright side to the decision and announced, "my hopes were never brighter than now." TTYN : Why would Douglas suggest such an idea?  For Douglass, the decision would bring slavery to the attention of the nation and was a step toward slavery's ultimate destruction.

41 Dred Scott TTYN – The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, did Taney ignore the basic ideas of each? Specifically, “all men are created equal.” He believed that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it."

42 “It is no novelty to find the Supreme Court following the lead of the Slavery Extension party, to which most of its members belong. Five of the Judges are slaveholders, and two of the other four owe their appointments to their facile ingenuity in making State laws bend to Federal demands in behalf of "the Southern institution.“ - Editorial in the Albany, New York, Evening Journal, 1857 Dred Scott

43 Small Group Activity: Timeline  Using the following events/terms and working cooperatively –  Construct a well-organized timeline  Each event/term should include a brief summary (2-3 sentences), which highlight important and historically significant information. Events and Terms:  Missouri Compromise  Compromise of 1850  Fugitive Slave Act  Bleeding Kansas  Wilmot Proviso  Kansas-Nebraska Act  Mexican War  Gadsden Purchase

44 The Election of 1860

45  The presidential Election of 1860 brought these conflicts to a head with dramatic consequences.  The Democratic Party split into three groups along regional lines, each vying for control of the party and each holding different ideas about how to deal with slavery in the West.  Three camps lined up against Abraham Lincoln, the nominee of the Republican Party, who advocated that the West be free of slavery entirely.

46 The Election of 1860  Lincoln’s opponents were so deeply divided, he won with less than forty percent of the popular vote (but with fifty-nine percent of the Electoral College) and without taking a single slave state.  Although Lincoln’s election was fair, it nonetheless pushed the Deep South toward secession.

47 The Election of 1860 Lincoln – The Immediate Reason for Secession  Unpopular in the South  Perceived hostility towards slavery  Perceived threat to the institution of slavery  Truth – Lincoln was not an extreme abolitionist  Opposed further extension, but had no intention of interfering with slavery where it existed  The election – The “straw that broke the camel’s back”

48 Secession  South Carolina responded to Lincoln’s election first, seceding from the Union on December 20,  This action made front-page news in the North two days later when Harper’s Weekly featured portraits of the state’s Congressmen on its cover, titled The Seceding South Carolina Delegation.

49 Secession  Other slave states followed in short order:  Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.  In early February, representatives of those states gathered in Montgomery, Alabama, to found a new nation  The Confederate States of America (also known as the Confederacy), and to name its president, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.

50 Why Secession?  Southern Economic Interests  Long-range threat to the entire economic and social structure of the South  No. Republicans pushing for a homestead law  Northern Railroad plans  High Tariffs  Sectional balance in the Senate

51 Secession: An opportunity to bring peace?  Many believed that secession would put the South into a bargaining position to secure a constitutional amendment to safeguard Southern interests.  “Better terms outside of the Union than in it”  Peace Convention  Seven Amendments presented  None were put forward  Secession would have to see it through

52 TTYN: Describe how each of the following three quotes explains the necessity to protect and preserve the Union. Union in Peril Document 1 “I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon on, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.” Abraham Lincoln

53 Union in Peril Document 2 A Southern victory would give courage to the enemies of progress and damp the spirits of its friends all over the civilized world.” John Stuart Mill Document 3 “It is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity. The first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.” George Washington

54 Document 1 “I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon on, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.” Abraham Lincoln Document 2 A Southern victory would give courage to the enemies of progress and damp the spirits of its friends all over the civilized world.” John Stuart Mill Document 3 “It is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity. The first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.” George Washington

55 Causes of the Civil War Causes

56 The Civil War - the bloodiest conflict in American history. The war pitted brother against brother, family against family, and state against state. In less than a century after the 13 original colonies celebrated their independence, the Civil War divided the country along deep economic and ideological fault lines. __________________________________________________________________ Economic and Social Differences between the North and the South State versus federal rights The Abolition Movement The Election of 1860 Causes of the Civil War

57 Learning Activity: “Be a Gamer”

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59 “Be a Gamer” – What Did We Learn Group Presentations

60 Civil War Facts First Blood and a Touch of Irony  The first casualties of the war came on April 19, 1861 TTYN: Can you recall another important event in American History that also occurred on April 19?

61 Civil War Facts  1/2 million+ people were killed or wounded in the Civil War  60 % of the fighting took place in Virginia

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63 “Be a Gamer” – What Did We Learn Highlights & Review

64  Abolitionist were people who wanted to end slavery or get rid of it.  Frederick Douglass was a well- known abolitionist. “Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will.”

65 Douglas believed that the election of a Republican foretold a rupture in the power of the slaveocracy. TTYN: Interpret the following quote from Douglas “It has taught the North its strength, and shown the South its weakness. More important still, it has demonstrated the possibility of electing, if not an Abolitionist, at least an anti-slavery reputation.”

66 TTYN: Interpret the following quote from Douglas “…before the foul and withering curse of slavery. Some thought we had in Mr. Lincoln the nerve Oliver Cromwell; but the results shows that we merely have a continuation of the Pierces and Buchanan's.”

67  Was a system setup to help slaves (African Americans) escape to the Northern USA or Canada.  Slaves hid in barns and houses

68  Nat Turner leads a rebellion against plantation owners in 1831 and killed 60 people TTYN: Why is a rebellion, which occurred almost thirty years before the Civil War significant?

69  President for the South during the Civil War.  The South’s Capital was Richmond, Virginia

70 Stonewall Jackson  Between late 1860 and early 1861, several Southern U.S. states declared their independence and seceded from the Union.  At first it was Jackson’s desire that Virginia, then his home state, would stay in the Union.  Virginia seceded in the spring of 1861, Jackson showed his support of the Confederacy, choosing to side with his state over the national government.

71 Stonewall Jackson  He knew that the Valley was the bread basket for the South.  Edinburg produced the most wheat.  Jackson only lost in the Kenstown.  He didn’t use chairs because he believed that standing was good for you.

72 Ulysses S. Grant  The hero of Vicksburg and Chattanooga  1864, took command of all the Union Armies  Had Lincoln’s full confidence  Lt. General – not since George Washington  Polar opposite of McClellan “there is no turning back”

73 Ulysses S. Grant From Three Directions  Grant and the Army of the Potomac would strike Lee and push him to Richmond  Butler to move N.E. against Richmond along the James River  Sherman would move towards Georgia in order to capture Atlanta  Lee awaits Grant outside Fredericksburg known as the Wilderness  Grant pursues Lee to Spotsylvania, VA “there is no turning back”

74 Ulysses S. Grant From Three Directions The Battle of the Wilderness and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House  A hideous struggle  Men on both sides had to climb over the dead and dying, “lying in some places in piles three and four deep.” “A nightmare of inhumanity.” New York Times, 1864  86K Union and Confederate casualties in a span of seven weeks “there is no turning back”

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76 Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

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78 TTYN: What effect, if any, has the war had on Southern life?

79 Robert E. Lee  West Point Grad Grad. and former Superintendent  Lincoln planned on offering Lee the highest military position within the Union Army  During the war, no man proved a more worthy opponent to Ulysses S. Grant than Confederate General Robert E. Lee.  Supervised the preparation of coastal defenses along the South Atlantic seaboard before being called to Richmond to serve as military advisor to President Jefferson Davis.

80 Robert E. Lee TTYN: Interpret the following quotes from Robert E. Lee “…I look upon secession as anarchy. If I owned the four millions of slaves in the South I would sacrifice them all to the Union; but how can I draw my sword upon Virginia, my native state?”

81 Robert E. Lee TTYN: Interpret the following quotes from Robert E. Lee “to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home, I have, therefore, resigned my commission in the Army, and save in defense of my native State (with the sincere hope that my poor services may never be needed) I hope I may never be called upon to draw my sword.”

82 Robert E. Lee  He assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia in May 1862 and immediately embarked on a series of skillful offensive operations that repelled the Union forces outside Richmond in the Seven Days Battles in June and July  Lee followed this with an offensive drive northward that culminated in victory at Second Manassas in August  However, his effort to carry the war across the Potomac nearly led to disaster when he barely fended off Union assaults at Antietam.

83 Robert E. Lee  Retreating back to Virginia, Lee again displayed deft generalship by checking Union offensives at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville; in the latter battle he prevailed, despite being outnumbered 2 to 1  Suffered a major defeat at Gettysburg on July 13, – The Turning Point of the war.

84 Fort Sumter  The first major battle of the Civil War began on April 12,  After 2 days, the North surrendered to the South.  No one was killed during the battle; however, 1 soldier who was killed when a cannon backfired during the surrendering ceremony.

85 The 1st Manassas or 1st Bull Run, VA  July 21,1861  The general for the confederates was Stonewall Jackson & Buearegard.  The general for the Yankees was McDowell.  The North had 387 soldiers killed while the South lost 460.  The South won the battle.

86 2nd Manassas or 2nd Bull Run, VA  August 29-30, 1862  The general for the Confederate was Stonewall Jackson.  The general for the Yankees was John Pope.  The North lost 16,000 soldiers while the South lost only 9,000  The South won the battle.

87 Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland  September 17, 1862  The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee.  The general for the Yankees was McClellan  Emancipation Proclamation trigger – the first turning point

88 Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland  The Bloodiest One-Day Battle in American History  Over 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat on September 17,  The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia's first invasion into the North and led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

89  The Battle took place in Farmer Miller’s cornfield.  The battle is known as the Single bloodiest day in the Civil War.  23,500 men were killed in the Bloody lane.  The name of the bridge where the confederates held the Yankees for 4 hours is called, Burnside.  The south used rocks when they ran out of ammunition.  South won the battle. Antietam or Sharpsburg, Maryland

90 Battle Of Fredericksburg  Dec , 1862  The general for the Confederates was Robert E. Lee  The general for the Yankees was Burnside.  The North had 122,000 soldiers while the South had 78,500

91  9,000 Union soldiers were killed while only 1,500 Southern soldiers were killed.  The South won the battle.  Lee said, “It is well that was is so horrible, else we should grow too fond of it.’ Battle Of Fredericksburg

92 Thinking about our time discussing the Revolutionary War (Remember that??) Which battle during the Revolutionary War is considered the turning point? Every war has a turning point and the Civil War is no different. The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) is widely considered to be the turning point of the American Civil War The Battle of Gettysburg

93 The Turning Point  For three grueling days, Union Soldiers and Confederate Soldiers staged one of the bloodiest battles of the war. The South, led by General Robert E. Lee, and supported by 75,000 Confederate Soldiers would ultimately suffer an emotional, physical, and spiritually draining loss against General George Meade and his 97,000 Union Soldiers. The Battle of Gettysburg

94 The Turning Point  Lee would never again attempt an offensive operation of such proportions. Although the war was to continue for two more horrible years, the Confederacy would never recover from the losses of Gettysburg. “…the most desperate which ever took place in the world. Nothing can picture the horrors of the battlefield around the ruined city of Gettysburg. Each house, church, hovel, and barn is filled with the wounded of both armies. The ground is covered with the dead. General Abner Doubleday The Battle of Gettysburg

95 A Missed Opportunity “after one of the severest contests of the war the rebels had been repulsed at all points” -General Meade  Lincoln urged Meade to pursue Lee  Meade failed to pursue  The orders to follow were never found…only reported in the diaries of Robert Lincoln The Battle of Gettysburg

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97 The Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met here on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

98 The Gettysburg Address "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. “….that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the earth.“ - Abraham Lincoln

99 The Gettysburg Address Gettysburg Address Meaning Lincoln's speech puts the Civil War in perspective as a test of the success of the American Revolution. The nation founded on equality was in the midst of a war to determine whether such a nation could continue to exist. He said that they were gathered to formally dedicate ground hallowed by the men, American citizens, who died there, but his speech turned the event into a rededication of the living to the war effort to preserve a nation of freedom. So, What does the Gettysburg Address tell Us?

100 William Tecumseh Sherman

101 Sherman’s March to the Sea  November 15 until December 21, 1864, Union General William T. Sherman led some 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.  The Goal of this “March to the Sea” was to frighten Georgia’s civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause.

102 Sherman’s March to the Sea  Sherman’s soldiers did not destroy any of the towns in their path, but they stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back.  The Yankees were “not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people,” Sherman explained; as a result, they needed to “make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.”

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105  April 9, 1865 Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox, court house, Virginia. Appomattox Court House

106 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

107 A Slave Advertisement The Issue of Slavery

108 Slave Auction House Atlanta, Georgia (1865)

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110

111 Enslaved Dock Workers Alexandria Virginia (1860)

112 A Pro-Slavery Lithograph (1850)

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114 Francis Carpenter

115 The Emancipation Proclamation Why the delay?  The Peninsula Defeat – made it clear that extraordinary means were necessary to save the Union and Antietam gave Lincoln the opening to deal with slavery  Confederacy use of slaves – dug trenches and built fortifications; cooks and hospital attendants, which freed up the soldiers to fight  Lincoln’s plan – divest the rebels of their slaves – who would be free to join the Union forces and provide the North an advantage

116 The Emancipation Proclamation Why the delay?  Compensated Emancipation??? – pay the slave and border states for the slaves  Border states refused, insisting that any such action should be initiated in the slave state Lincoln had “come to the conclusion that it was a military necessity absolutely essential for the salvation of the Union, that we must free the slave or be ourselves subdued.” Need one ‘big’ victory!

117 Emancipation Proclamation Evolution of the Emancipation Proclamation  Lincoln asks for Joint Resolution providing federal aid to any state that adopts a plan for abolition of slavery  Resolution stipulates:  All slaves within the borders would be freed upon reaching a certain age or specify a date that slavery would no longer be allowed

118 Emancipation Proclamation The Cost of War  Less than one half-day’s cost of the war would pay for all the slaves in Delaware  87 days would pay for all the slaves within the Border States TTYN: Why is the value of slavery within the Border States relevant?

119 Emancipation Proclamation The Cost of War  TTYN: Evaluate the following quote by Lincoln  Lincoln believed that nothing would bring the rebellion to an end faster than a commitment by the border slave states to “surrender on fair terms their own interest in slavery rather than see the Union dissolved.”  If Rebels were deprived of hope that the Border States might join the Confederacy, they would lose heart

120 Emancipation Proclamation Border State Counter-Point  Border State Reps argue that emancipation in any form would lengthen the war, not shorten.  Would consolidate the spirit in the seceded states and fan the spirit of secession among loyal slaveholders in the border states  A Matter of Fairness – punish those who remain loyal, while forcing them to relinquish their slaves; contrast to the rebellious states who retained their slaves.

121 Emancipation Proclamation Compensated Emancipation  D.C.  Lincoln approved on compensated approval in D.C. TTYN: What makes D.C. different than Delaware or Kentucky?  Lincoln justified his constitutional authority within areas that fell under federal authority – D.C.  Ripple Effects – MD. And VA. Slaveholders began selling off slaves

122 Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation and the Constitution  Lincoln concurred with abolitionists that slavery was a moral, a social, and a political wrong, but…  Could not ignore the constitutional protection of the institution where it existed.

123 Emancipation Proclamation Economic and Military Aspects  Divest the South of slavery and save the Union  Emancipation became a military necessity  South use of slaves on the warfront and at home  Constitutional War Powers  based on the Chief Executives powers as Commander in Chief  Now able to free 3.5M Slaves in Confederate States  Not 450K in Border States

124 The Emancipation Proclamation  1862, Lincoln issued an executive order, which suggested that any Confederate State that did not return to the Union by Jan. 1, freedom would be granted to all the slaves within those states.  Jan 1, 1863, after no state took Lincoln up on his offer, Lincoln unleashed the ultimate blow – declaring that all slaves in every Confederate State are now free.

125 The Emancipation Proclamation  The proclamation declared, "all persons held as slaves within any States, or designated part of the State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.“  The Emancipation Proclamation had almost no immediate effect, since it was impossible for the Federal government to implement it in those regions where it actually applied -- namely the states in rebellion that were not under Federal control, but………

126 The Emancipation Proclamation  Despite the lack of any immediate impact on the slaves, the proclamation represented a shift in the attitudes of the North towards its war objectives, where merely reuniting the nation would no longer become the sole outcome.  Represented the first step toward the ultimate abolition of slavery in the United States.

127 The Emancipation Proclamation  Lincoln knew that the Queen and working population were anti- slavery  Introducing the slavery issue would make it impractical for the British Gov’t to come to the aid of the Confederacy TTYN – Do you believe that Lincoln finally came to his senses regarding slavery or was the Emancipation Proclamation driven by diplomatic purposes? A Diplomatic Move

128 William Seward “the ablest American diplomatist of the century.”

129 The Emancipation Proclamation  A Diplomatic Move  Goal – keep Britain neutral  Remember, from the beginning, Lincoln was reluctant to make slavery the key issue. Why?  Would drive the border slave states into secession  Once Military possessions were in the hands of the Union Army, Lincoln throws down the hammer – the Emancipation Proclamation

130 Summer of ‘63  Transformation in the Union war effort – the deployment of black regiments  180K Black Soldiers – 54 th Massachusetts Regiments “He who fights the battles of America may claim America as his country –and have that claim respected.” --Frederick Douglas “The Colored population is the great available and yet un-availed of, force for restoring the Union.” --Abraham Lincoln

131 One Fine Day  Proof that Congress can work  May 20, 1862  37 th Congress, last day of the session  President Lincoln signs:  The Homestead Act  The Morrill Act  Pacific Railroad Act  Legal Tender Bill

132 One Fine Day  The Homestead Act – promised 160 acres if free public land largely in the West to settlers who agreed to reside on property for five years or more.  The Morrill Act – public lands to states for the establishment of land-grant colleges  Pacific Railroad Act- made the construction of a transcontinental railroad possible  Legal Tender Bill – laid the economic foundation for the Union war effort, which created paper money known as “greenbacks.”

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134 Lincoln and Tad in Richmond, April 4, 1865

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136 13 th A mendment Passed by Congress January 31, 1865 To be examined in greater detail during our Reconstruction Unit

137 Killing Lincoln To be examined in greater detail during our Reconstruction Unit On April 14, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated while watching a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington

138 What I Know About the Civil War What I Learned About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN

139  Jan – South Carolina, the first state to secede from the Union  Mar – Lincoln inaugurated  Apr – Fort Sumter attacked  Apr – Battle of Shiloh (24K Troops killed)  Jan – Emancipation Proclamation  Jul – Battle of Gettysburg  Jul. 19, 1863 – Gettysburg Address  Nov – Sherman’s March to the Sea  Nov – Lincoln re-elected  Apr. 9, 1865 – The South surrenders  Apr. 14, 1865 – Lincoln assassinated The Civil War Timeline

140 Of the 364,000 on the Union side who lost their lives, a third were killed or died of wounds and two-thirds died of disease Approximately 130,000 freed slaves became Union soldiers during the war. According to the U. S. Census, the population of the United States in 1860 numbered 31,443,321 persons. Of these, approximately 23,000,000 were in the 22 Northern states and 9,000,000 in the 11 Southern states. Of the latter total, 3,500,000 were slaves. At one time or another, the Northern armies numbered 2,100,000 soldiers. The Southern armies were considerably smaller. The total dead on both sides was about 500,000. The Union Army consisted of between 2.5 to 2.7 million men while the Confederate forces had 750,000 to 1.2 million men. The Union Army lost approximately 360,000 men during the war. Only 110,070 of these men were listed as having been killed in battles. The remainder were listed as having died of disease or other causes. The Confederate forces lost approximately 258,000 men with 94,000 listed as having died in battles while 164,000 were listed as having died of disease or other causes. The figures of the Confederate's will never be known for sure because many records were either lost or destroyed.

141 Learning Activity: DBQ

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149 Unit Assessment:  Two-Day Event  Day One  Multiple Choice  Short Answer IDs  Day Two  Thematic Essay

150 Unit Assessment:  Day Two: Thematic Essay  Thematic Essay Prompts: You will be offered one of the following prompts to respond to:

151 Option 1: Throughout the history of the United States, Presidents have made important decisions in an effort to solve crucial problems. From your study of United States history and the Civil War, identify two important Presidential decisions that Abraham Lincoln made. For each decision identified:  State one goal the President hoped to accomplish by making the decision  Discuss the historical circumstances surrounding the Presidential decision  Describe the extent to which the decision achieved the President's original goal  Discuss one immediate or one long-term effect of the decision on United States history

152 Option 2: During the Antebellum period, there were multiple attempts to stave of secession and maintain the unity of the United States. From your study of the United States history and the Civil War, identify two important compromises made in order to maintain the unity of the United States. For each compromise identified:  State one goal the compromise hoped to accomplish Discuss the historical circumstances surrounding the compromise  Describe the extent to which the compromise achieved the original goal  Discuss one immediate or one long-term effect of the compromise

153 Optional or Suggested Activity Political Parties of the Antebellum American and the Civil War Era  Graphic Organizers  Know Nothing Party  Free Soil  Democrat  Whigs  Republican  Focus: Platform, When, Leaders, Demise (if applicable), Other  Resources: Textbook or Learning Packet (preferred)  Learning Stations with Learning Packet  Time: No more than one period

154 Whig Party

155  Antebellum  Sectionalism  Plantation Society  Manifest Destiny  Opium Wars  Annexation  Gadsden Purchase  Abolitionist  Wilmot Proviso  Henry Clay  Missouri Compromise  Compromise of 1850  Popular Sovereignty  Nat Turner  Westward Expansion  Stephen Douglas  Kansas-Nebraska Act  Democrats  Union  Republican  36°30°  Frederick Douglas  John Brown  Roger B. Taney  Secession  Fort Sumter  Emancipation Proclamation  Gettysburg  Robert E. Lee  Antietam  Appomattox  William T. Sherman  Stonewall Jackson  Gettysburg Address  Abraham Lincoln  Uncle Tom’s Cabin  Henry Clay  Confederacy  Bull Run  Know Nothing’s  Free Soil Party  Jefferson Davis  Slave Law  Dred Scott  Fugitive Slave Act Short-Answer ID’s

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157 CLASSIFIED CASE FILE Emancipation Proclamation September of 1862, after the Union's victory at Antietam, Lincoln issued a preliminary decree stating that, unless the rebellious states returned to the Union by January 1, freedom would be granted to slaves within those states.

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159 Who authored the document? When was the document authored? What type of document ? Who was the audience for the document? Why was it created? Who was the aggressor in the incident according to the document? Document 1 Document 2 See Handout Detective Log

160 Document 1 Abraham Lincoln Quote

161 Document 2 Frederick Douglas Quote

162 Document 3 Horace Greeley Quote

163 Document 4 Abraham Lincoln Quote

164 Document 5 Abraham Lincoln Quote and Emancipation in the District of Columbia Chicago Tribune

165 Document 6 The Confiscation Act Chicago Tribune, July 15, 1862

166 Document 7

167 Document 8

168 Questions to Consider  What questions did you ask while evaluating these sources?  On what points do the accounts agree?  On what points do the accounts differ?  Which of these sources aligns most closely with what you already knew about the Emancipation Proclamation? How so?  Which of these sources is most reliable in determining what actually happened at the events leading up the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation? Why do you think so?  Describe the difficulties in developing an accurate account of historical events like the events leading up to the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation?  If you were asked to write your own historical account of the events that occurred during the battle over the issue of slavery, how would you go about doing so?

169 Cracking the Case Based on your analysis of the documents and citing evidence to support your answer, please write a one-page summary, which answers the following questions: what were some of the issues that troubled Abraham Lincoln prior to issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, what were some of the reactions from society prior to the signing and after the signing of the proclamation, and finally, what impact, if any, will the proclamation have on society and specifically, newly freed slaves?

170 To the Teacher: Be sure to download my Emancipation Proclamation Detective Log And Emancipation Proclamation Primary Source Packet

171 Next Unit: Reconstruction

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