Presentation on theme: "THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY The 1850s. Terms You’ll Need to Know… Wilmot Proviso Secession Compromise of 1850 Popular Sovereignty Stephen A. Douglas."— Presentation transcript:
THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY The 1850s
Terms You’ll Need to Know… Wilmot Proviso Secession Compromise of 1850 Popular Sovereignty Stephen A. Douglas Millard Fillmore
Industry & Immigration in the North Agriculture & Slavery in the South Industrialization turned out massive amounts of products Railroad tracks were abundant Large urban cities Immigrants who opposed slavery Rural society made up of plantations and small farms Relied on staple crops Few immigrants Slaves outnumbered whites in some states (MS, LA, SC) Differences Between North and South
Election of 1848 General Zachary Taylor - Whig Lewis Cass- Democrat Martin Van Buren- Free Soil Party
Slavery in the Territories Tensions b/t North and South heightened b/c of an amendment known as the Wilmot Proviso The amendment states that slavery will be outlawed in the territories gained from the war w/ Mexico (California, Utah, & New Mexico) Northerners approved it/ Southerners rejected it California grew so rapidly due to the gold rush, that it quickly wrote a constitution, elected a governor and legislature, and applied for statehood The state constitution outlawed slavery in state Pres. Zachary Taylor approved CA statehood as a free state in 1849 South began to question if they could remain in the Union
The Senate Debates The 31 st Congress opened in Dec. 1849—the debate over slavery was the key issue The South threatened secession, but like always, nobody actually thought they would ever do it Henry Clay worked came up w/ the Compromise of 1850: To appease North, CA was admitted as free state To appease South, proposed new/ harsh fugitive slave laws Allowed for new territories to operate on popular sovereignty —the right of residents to vote for or against slavery
Calhoun and Webster respond to Compromise of 1850 Clay’s speech to Congress sparked heated debate in US history Calhoun presented the case of Southerners—gave reasons why slavery should exist in new territories Daniel Webster present the case of Northerners— argued for a compromise, and warned the South about threats of secession
The Compromise is Adopted Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois developed a strategy to reintroduce the Compromise in individual parts—in doing so, the Compromise was able to be passed Millard Fillmore became President when Taylor died on July 9—Fillmore believed that the Compromise of 1850 had settled the question of slavery in the new territories The issue of enforcement of the fugitive slave laws will cause the South to become even more frustrated w/ their country
Terms You’ll Need to Know… Fugitive Slave Act Personal Liberty Laws Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin Kansas-Nebraska Act John Brown Bleeding Kansas
Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Slaves that escape to the North had to be returned to their owners as part of the Fugitive Slave Act, a provision of the Compromise of 1850 Many northerners and abolitionists despised the unfairness of the law Many organized into committees to send slaves who made it to the north to Canada 9 Northern states passed personal liberty laws, which forbade the imprisonment of slaves, and guaranteed jury trials to any slave caught—this caused tremendous expense to plantation owners Southerners were angry w/ the North’s efforts to subvert the law
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad: Northern abolitionists were able to create a secret network of people (conductors) who would risk their lives to harbor slaves who escaped from their owners The most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman —born a slave (1820) was given brain damage by her masters’ beatings. A strong women, she was able to escape to Philadelphia in 1849 She made 19 trips to the South to lead over 300 slaves to freedom
Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe (devout abolitionist) published this book Message of the wildly popular book was that slavery was unjust In response to the book, northerners protested against Fugitive Slave Act, while southerners felt their culture was under attack
1852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
New Political Parties Emerge The issue of slavery kept dividing the Whig Party 1852; Gen. Winfield Scott was Whig nominee for president, but southern Whigs didn’t rally behind him due to his stance against slavery This enabled the Democratic candidate — Franklin Pierce —to become president in 1852
Remember me? General Winfield Scott, Whig candidate for presidency in 1852 Felt slavery should be outlawed
1852 Electi on Result s
Tension in Kansas and Nebraska The issue over slavery in the territories gained from Mexico (which was supposed to have been settled w/ the Compromise of 1850) resurfaced once again Ironically, Stephen Douglas-the main author of the Compromise of was the person to bring it up
Popular Sovereignty Douglas was eager to incorporate the western territories into the Union He believed in popular sovereignty, where people in the Nebraska Territory could decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery However, the Nebraska Territory lay above the Missouri Compromise line (36°30’ N), and therefore it was illegal to have slavery in the land (he believed that it would be split into two lands) To gain support from the South, Douglas supported the repeal of the Missouri Compromise
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Jan. 23, 1854 Douglas introduced bill that would split the land into two territories: Nebraska in the north: anti- slavery, and Kansas in the south: pro-slavery This was bitterly debated from the North, who saw it as an attempt to create more slave states in the west The Kansas-Nebraska was passed after months of debate—this split the Whig party into…northern Whigs were anti-slavery, but southern Whigs supported slavery Now, all people focused their attention on the new territories to see whether or not they voted to allow slavery in their state
Violence Erupts in “Bleeding Kansas” Since the issue of slavery would be ultimately decided on by a vote of the people in Kansas (popular sovereignty), thousands of people from the North and the South w/ polar opposite views poured into Kansas to influence the vote By March 1855, Kansas had enough people to hold an election for a territorial legislature: proslavery militia from Missouri poured in to illegally vote, and influenced the balance of the congress to be proslavery
“The Sack of Lawrence” Violence soon erupted throughout Kansas Antislavery groups est the town of Lawrence; a proslavery grand jury labeled these men as traitors, and sent an 800 man posse to arrest them The posse burned down nearly every building in Lawrence, Kansas (aka the “sack of Lawrence”) BLEEDING KANSAS!!
“The Pottawatomie Massacre” Devout abolitionist, John Brown heard about the Sack of Lawrence, and wanted revenge He believed that he was chosen by God to fight the evils of slavery 3 days later, he led a group on the proslavery settlement on Pottawatomie Creek; hacked up 5 men Proslavery men wanted revenge
In Congress, Mass. Senator Charles Sumner spoke of the evils of slavery, and was particularly abusive towards SC aging senator Andrew Butler. Butler’s nephew (a congressman himself) walked up to Sumner and began beating him w/ a cane—caused brain damage. Southerners applauded!!!
Terms You’ll Need to Know… Franklin Pierce Nativism Know-Nothing Party Free-Soil Party Republican Party Horace Greeley John C. Fremont James Buchanan
Nativism Why is their flag ironic? One political party evolved out of a fear of immigrants in the US It’s official party name was the “American Party”, but everyone knew them by the “Know-Nothing Party”. They got this nickname b/c they were told if anyone ever asked about their party beliefs, they were to respond w/ “I know nothing” This party was rooted in nativism –a fear of immigrants, Catholic beliefs spreading, they favored native-born Americans for everything. However, the issue of slavery split this party as well
Antislavery Parties Form In 1840s, two abolitionists parties formed in America, and influenced presidential elections by splitting the votes of the major parties The Liberty Party and the Free-Soil Party both were rooted in anti-slavery beliefs Many northerners were members of the Free-Soil Party, but not devout abolitionists The did not really care too much about slavery in the South, however, they did not want slavery allowed in the new territory.
The Republican Party Feb in Ripon, Wisconsin, members of the Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and Free- Soilers formed the Republican Party Horace Greeley was a founding member It opposed the Kansas- Nebraska Act, he wanted to keep slavery out of the new territory W/ issues like the Sack of Lawrence, Pottawatomie massacre, bleeding Kansas, and Bleeding Sumner, they had issues to challenge the Democrats for president in 1856 Horace Greeley
Election of 1856 Republicans chose John C. Fremont, the pathfinder of Oregon Trail, war w/ Mexico Know-Nothings split b/t Fremont and former Pres. Millard Fillmore The Democrats nominated James Buchanan, who was minister to England during heated debates over slavery in Congress
Is Alec Baldwin a relative of Millard Fillmore???
1856 Electi on Result s
Results of the Election of 1856 Buchanan won the election He carried all of the southern votes The election proved three things: The Democrats could win the presidency w/ a candidate from the North The Know-Nothings were in decline The Republicans were a political force in the North
Terms You’ll Need to Know… Dred Scott Roger B. Taney Abraham Lincoln Freeport Doctrine Harpers Ferry Confederacy Jefferson Davis
Surgeon Dr. John Emerson had a slave, Dred Scott, as his personal assistant for many years in the north. He died in 1846, and Scott sued for his freedom claiming since he had lived in territories were slavery was outlawed, he was legally free. The Supreme Ct, w/ chief justice Robert Taney (slave holder), ruled… 1.Free or slave, blacks were not citizens; therefore, Scott had no standing before the ct 2.Scott was property of his owner, much like a mule or horse 3.B/c slaves were property, thus protected by 5 th Amendment, Congress could not deprive citizens of property-- including slaves—anywhere in the US With one sweeping decision, Taney had obliterated the entire legislative history of compromises that restricted slavery
A frontier upbringing Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room cabin near Louisville, Kentucky, to poor parents who owned no slaves. Lincoln’s parents opposed slavery, and they moved to the Indiana Territory in 1816, settling near the Ohio River. Lincoln’s early politics In 1834, at 25, he was elected to the Illinois General Assembly, serving four terms. Lincoln studied law at home, becoming licensed to practice law in In 1842, he married Mary Todd, the daughter of a wealthy Kentucky slaveholder. By then he was practicing law full-time. Lincoln in Congress In 1846 Lincoln successfully ran for Congress. Lincoln charged President Polk, a slaveholding Democrat, with starting the Mexican-American War in order to spread slavery. Lincoln opposed slavery, but he believed each state had to decide. Lincoln’s proposal for compensation emancipation received little support, and he resigned from Congress in 1849 and returned home to practice law. Lincoln’s Background
Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas Debates Stephen Douglas unsuccessfully sought the Democratic party nomination in 1852 & 1856—he kept his ambition alive for the 1860 election, but he had to hold onto his Illinois senate seat Running against him was former one-term rep named Abraham Lincoln—not politically savvy, but Douglas knew he was a formidable opponent Lincoln’s “A house divided against itself cannot stand…” speech convinced Republicans that he was the mad to run against Douglas
Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas Debates Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates a various spots in the state—Douglas agreed to 7 Douglas would make Lincoln look like a raving abolitionist…Lincoln would depict Douglas as pro- slavery and a defender of the Dred Scott decision Even though Lincoln lost the election for that senate seat, the Republicans knew they had a candidate that could possibly win the presidential election in 1860
Why did John Brown attack a federal arsenal? Remember John Brown—led massacre in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery settlers? History has come to view him as a lunatic, psychotic, fanatic, visionary, and martyr, he came from a New England abolitionist family—many were crazy After the Pottawatomie incident, Brown went into hiding. But, he was able to persuade wealthy New Englanders to fund his terroristic efforts in the South His plan…to march south, arm the slaves who would then flock to his crusade, and establish a black republic in the Appalachians to wage war against the slave holding South
Harpers Ferry While in the South, Brown confided w/ Frederick Douglas…a man that slaves would flock to like a “hive of bees” Douglas tried to convince him that his target..Harpers Ferry… was suicidal Oct. 16, 1859 Brown, his 3 sons, and 15 followers, attacked the federal arsenal in VA, close to DC Brown was able to take the building, but no slaves came forward to help Under command of Robert E. Lee, Brown and 8 survivors in his crew were captured and hanged
Lincoln is Elected President The Republican convention held in Chicago in 1860 had a fervor like never before Most signs pointed to Senator William Seward getting the nomination—he had his speech ready, he knew he would be chosen The party instead nominated Lincoln, a lesser known man, and more moderate in his views over North and South relations…the South knew that if Lincoln became president, their way of life was over Lincoln did not get one southern vote, but was still able to win the election in 1860
1860 President ial Election √ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat
Republican Party Platform in 1860 Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers. Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]. No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”]. Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest]. Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense. Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers]. Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers. Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]. No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”]. Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest]. Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense. Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].
1860 Election Results 1860 Election Results
Southern Secession Within days of Lincoln’s election in 1860, SC legislature had voted to secede from the Union SC state militia began seizing the forts w/in the state—the last fort in federal hands was Ft. Sumter Before Lincoln was inaugurated (in March) 5 more southern states had seceded In Feb. of 1861, these 7 states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) formed the Confederate States of America… “The Confederacy”
Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860
Southern Secession On Feb 9, delegates to the Confederate constitutional convention unanimously elected Jefferson Davis as its president The question on everyone’s mind…what would Lincoln do—is it legal for states to simply secede from the US?
The Confederate States of America
The 1860 Census The Union 23 states, including California, Oregon; 4 slaveholding “border states” of Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland, and 7 territories Population: 22 million (4 million men combat age) Economy: 100,000 factories 1.1 mil workers 20,000 miles railroad (96% RR equipment) $189 million bank deposits (81%)/ $56 million in gold The Confederacy Eleven States Population: 9 million (3.5 million slaves; only 1.2 million men combat age) Economy: 20,000 factories 101,000 workers 9,000 miles railroad $47 million bank deposits $27 million gold