4Differences Between North and South Industry & Immigration in the NorthAgriculture & Slavery in the SouthIndustrialization turned out massive amounts of productsRailroad tracks were abundantLarge urban citiesImmigrants who opposed slaveryRural society made up of plantations and small farmsRelied on staple cropsFew immigrantsSlaves outnumbered whites in some states (MS, LA, SC)
5Election of 1848 Martin Van Buren- Free Soil Party Lewis Cass- DemocratGeneral Zachary Taylor - Whig
6Slavery in the Territories Tensions b/t North and South heightened b/c of an amendment known as the Wilmot ProvisoThe amendment states that slavery will be outlawed in the territories gained from the war w/ Mexico (California, Utah, & New Mexico)Northerners approved it/ Southerners rejected itCalifornia grew so rapidly due to the gold rush, that it quickly wrote a constitution, elected a governor and legislature, and applied for statehoodThe state constitution outlawed slavery in statePres. Zachary Taylor approved CA statehood as a free state in 1849South began to question if they could remain in the Union
8The Senate DebatesThe 31st Congress opened in Dec. 1849—the debate over slavery was the key issueThe South threatened secession, but like always, nobody actually thought they would ever do itHenry Clay worked came up w/ the Compromise of 1850:To appease North, CA was admitted as free stateTo appease South, proposed new/ harsh fugitive slave lawsAllowed for new territories to operate on popular sovereignty —the right of residents to vote for or against slavery
9Calhoun and Webster respond to Compromise of 1850 Clay’s speech to Congress sparked heated debate in US historyCalhoun presented the case of Southerners—gave reasons why slavery should exist in new territoriesDaniel Webster present the case of Northerners—argued for a compromise, and warned the South about threats of secession
11The Compromise is Adopted Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois developed a strategy to reintroduce the Compromise in individual parts—in doing so, the Compromise was able to be passedMillard Fillmore became President when Taylor died on July 9—Fillmore believed that the Compromise of 1850 had settled the question of slavery in the new territoriesThe issue of enforcement of the fugitive slave laws will cause the South to become even more frustrated w/ their country
13Terms You’ll Need to Know… Fugitive Slave ActPersonal Liberty LawsUnderground RailroadHarriet TubmanHarriet Beecher StoweUncle Tom’s CabinKansas-Nebraska ActJohn BrownBleeding Kansas
14Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Slaves that escape to the North had to be returned to their owners as part of the Fugitive Slave Act, a provision of the Compromise of 1850Many northerners and abolitionists despised the unfairness of the lawMany organized into committees to send slaves who made it to the north to Canada9 Northern states passed personal liberty laws, which forbade the imprisonment of slaves, and guaranteed jury trials to any slave caught—this caused tremendous expense to plantation ownersSoutherners were angry w/ the North’s efforts to subvert the law
15Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Underground Railroad: Northern abolitionists were able to create a secret network of people (conductors) who would risk their lives to harbor slaves who escaped from their ownersThe most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman —born a slave (1820) was given brain damage by her masters’ beatings. A strong women, she was able to escape to Philadelphia in 1849She made 19 trips to the South to lead over 300 slaves to freedom
16Uncle Tom’s Cabin1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe (devout abolitionist) published this bookMessage of the wildly popular book was that slavery was unjustIn response to the book, northerners protested against Fugitive Slave Act, while southerners felt their culture was under attack
171852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
18New Political Parties Emerge The issue of slavery kept dividing the Whig Party1852; Gen. Winfield Scott was Whig nominee for president, but southern Whigs didn’t rally behind him due to his stance against slaveryThis enabled the Democratic candidate —Franklin Pierce —to become president in 1852
19Remember me?General Winfield Scott, Whig candidate for presidency in 1852Felt slavery should be outlawed
21Tension in Kansas and Nebraska The issue over slavery in the territories gained from Mexico (which was supposed to have been settled w/ the Compromise of 1850) resurfaced once againIronically, Stephen Douglas-the main author of the Compromise of was the person to bring it up
22Popular SovereigntyDouglas was eager to incorporate the western territories into the UnionHe believed in popular sovereignty, where people in the Nebraska Territory could decide for themselves whether or not to allow slaveryHowever, the Nebraska Territory lay above the Missouri Compromise line (36°30’ N), and therefore it was illegal to have slavery in the land (he believed that it would be split into two lands)To gain support from the South, Douglas supported the repeal of the Missouri Compromise
23The Kansas-Nebraska Act Jan. 23, 1854 Douglas introduced bill that would split the land into two territories: Nebraska in the north: anti-slavery, and Kansas in the south: pro-slaveryThis was bitterly debated from the North, who saw it as an attempt to create more slave states in the westThe Kansas-Nebraska was passed after months of debate—this split the Whig party into…northern Whigs were anti-slavery, but southern Whigs supported slaveryNow, all people focused their attention on the new territories to see whether or not they voted to allow slavery in their state
25Violence Erupts in “Bleeding Kansas” Since the issue of slavery would be ultimately decided on by a vote of the people in Kansas (popular sovereignty), thousands of people from the North and the South w/ polar opposite views poured into Kansas to influence the voteBy March 1855, Kansas had enough people to hold an election for a territorial legislature: proslavery militia from Missouri poured in to illegally vote, and influenced the balance of the congress to be proslavery
26“The Sack of Lawrence” Violence soon erupted throughout Kansas Antislavery groups est the town of Lawrence; a proslavery grand jury labeled these men as traitors, and sent an 800 man posse to arrest themThe posse burned down nearly every building in Lawrence, Kansas (aka the “sack of Lawrence”)BLEEDING KANSAS!!
28“The Pottawatomie Massacre” Devout abolitionist, John Brown heard about the Sack of Lawrence, and wanted revengeHe believed that he was chosen by God to fight the evils of slavery3 days later, he led a group on the proslavery settlement on Pottawatomie Creek; hacked up 5 menProslavery men wanted revenge
29In Congress, Mass. Senator Charles Sumner spoke of the evils of slavery, and was particularly abusive towards SC aging senator Andrew Butler.Butler’s nephew (a congressman himself) walked up to Sumner and began beating him w/ a cane—caused brain damage. Southerners applauded!!!
30Terms You’ll Need to Know… Franklin PierceNativismKnow-Nothing PartyFree-Soil PartyRepublican PartyHorace GreeleyJohn C. FremontJames Buchanan
31Nativism Why is their flag ironic? One political party evolved out of a fear of immigrants in the USIt’s official party name was the “American Party”, but everyone knew them by the “Know-Nothing Party”. They got this nickname b/c they were told if anyone ever asked about their party beliefs, they were to respond w/ “I know nothing”This party was rooted in nativism –a fear of immigrants, Catholic beliefs spreading, they favored native-born Americans for everything. However, the issue of slavery split this party as well
32Antislavery Parties Form In 1840s, two abolitionists parties formed in America, and influenced presidential elections by splitting the votes of the major partiesThe Liberty Party and the Free-Soil Party both were rooted in anti-slavery beliefsMany northerners were members of the Free-Soil Party, but not devout abolitionistsThe did not really care too much about slavery in the South, however, they did not want slavery allowed in the new territory.
33The Republican PartyFeb in Ripon, Wisconsin, members of the Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and Free- Soilers formed the Republican PartyHorace Greeley was a founding memberIt opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he wanted to keep slavery out of the new territoryW/ issues like the Sack of Lawrence, Pottawatomie massacre, bleeding Kansas, and Bleeding Sumner, they had issues to challenge the Democrats for president in 1856Horace Greeley
34Election of 1856The Democrats nominated James Buchanan, who was minister to England during heated debates over slavery in CongressRepublicans chose John C. Fremont, the pathfinder of Oregon Trail, war w/ MexicoKnow-Nothings split b/t Fremont and former Pres. Millard Fillmore
35Is Alec Baldwin a relative of Millard Fillmore???
37Results of the Election of 1856 Buchanan won the electionHe carried all of the southern votesThe election proved three things:The Democrats could win the presidency w/ a candidate from the NorthThe Know-Nothings were in declineThe Republicans were a political force in the North
38Terms You’ll Need to Know… Dred ScottRoger B. TaneyAbraham LincolnFreeport DoctrineHarpers FerryConfederacyJefferson Davis
39Surgeon Dr. John Emerson had a slave, Dred Scott, as his personal assistant for many years in the north. He died in 1846, and Scott sued for his freedom claiming since he had lived in territories were slavery was outlawed, he was legally free.The Supreme Ct, w/ chief justice Robert Taney (slave holder), ruled…Free or slave, blacks were not citizens; therefore, Scott had no standing before the ctScott was property of his owner, much like a mule or horseB/c slaves were property, thus protected by 5th Amendment, Congress could not deprive citizens of property--including slaves—anywhere in the USWith one sweeping decision, Taney had obliterated the entire legislative history of compromises that restricted slavery
40Lincoln’s Background A frontier upbringing Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room cabin near Louisville, Kentucky, to poor parents who owned no slaves. Lincoln’s parents opposed slavery, and they moved to the Indiana Territory in 1816, settling near the Ohio River.Lincoln’s early politicsIn 1834, at 25, he was elected to the Illinois General Assembly, serving four terms. Lincoln studied law at home, becoming licensed to practice law in In 1842, he married Mary Todd, the daughter of a wealthy Kentucky slaveholder. By then he was practicing law full-time.Lincoln in CongressIn 1846 Lincoln successfully ran for Congress. Lincoln charged President Polk, a slaveholding Democrat, with starting the Mexican-American War in order to spread slavery. Lincoln opposed slavery, but he believed each state had to decide. Lincoln’s proposal for compensation emancipation received little support, and he resigned from Congress in 1849 and returned home to practice law.
41Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas Debates Stephen Douglas unsuccessfully sought the Democratic party nomination in 1852 & 1856—he kept his ambition alive for the 1860 election, but he had to hold onto his Illinois senate seatRunning against him was former one-term rep named Abraham Lincoln—not politically savvy, but Douglas knew he was a formidable opponentLincoln’s “A house divided against itself cannot stand…” speech convinced Republicans that he was the mad to run against Douglas
42Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas Debates Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates a various spots in the state—Douglas agreed to 7Douglas would make Lincoln look like a raving abolitionist…Lincoln would depict Douglas as pro-slavery and a defender of the Dred Scott decisionEven though Lincoln lost the election for that senate seat, the Republicans knew they had a candidate that could possibly win the presidential election in 1860
44Why did John Brown attack a federal arsenal? Remember John Brown—led massacre in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery settlers?History has come to view him as a lunatic, psychotic, fanatic, visionary, and martyr, he came from a New England abolitionist family—many were crazyAfter the Pottawatomie incident, Brown went into hiding. But, he was able to persuade wealthy New Englanders to fund his terroristic efforts in the SouthHis plan…to march south, arm the slaves who would then flock to his crusade, and establish a black republic in the Appalachians to wage war against the slave holding South
45Harpers FerryWhile in the South, Brown confided w/ Frederick Douglas…a man that slaves would flock to like a “hive of bees”Douglas tried to convince him that his target..Harpers Ferry… was suicidalOct. 16, 1859 Brown, his 3 sons, and 15 followers, attacked the federal arsenal in VA, close to DCBrown was able to take the building, but no slaves came forward to helpUnder command of Robert E. Lee, Brown and 8 survivors in his crew were captured and hanged
47Lincoln is Elected President The Republican convention held in Chicago in 1860 had a fervor like never beforeMost signs pointed to Senator William Seward getting the nomination—he had his speech ready, he knew he would be chosenThe party instead nominated Lincoln, a lesser known man, and more moderate in his views over North and South relations…the South knew that if Lincoln became president, their way of life was overLincoln did not get one southern vote, but was still able to win the election in 1860
481860 Presidential Election √ Abraham Lincoln RepublicanJohn Bell Constitutional Union1860 Presidential ElectionStephen A. Douglas Northern DemocratJohn C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat
49Republican Party Platform in 1860 Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers.Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].
52Southern SecessionWithin days of Lincoln’s election in 1860, SC legislature had voted to secede from the UnionSC state militia began seizing the forts w/in the state—the last fort in federal hands was Ft. SumterBefore Lincoln was inaugurated (in March) 5 more southern states had secededIn Feb. of 1861, these 7 states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) formed the Confederate States of America… “The Confederacy”
54Southern SecessionOn Feb 9, delegates to the Confederate constitutional convention unanimously elected Jefferson Davis as its presidentThe question on everyone’s mind…what would Lincoln do—is it legal for states to simply secede from the US?
56The 1860 CensusThe Union23 states, including California, Oregon; 4 slaveholding “border states” of Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland, and 7 territoriesPopulation: 22 million (4 million men combat age)Economy:100,000 factories1.1 mil workers20,000 miles railroad (96% RR equipment)$189 million bank deposits (81%)/ $56 million in goldThe ConfederacyEleven StatesPopulation: 9 million (3.5 million slaves; only 1.2 million men combat age)Economy:20,000 factories101,000 workers9,000 miles railroad$47 million bank deposits$27 million gold