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Transforming Teaching for the 21 st Century Transformation Begins With Commitment and Courage.

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Presentation on theme: "Transforming Teaching for the 21 st Century Transformation Begins With Commitment and Courage."— Presentation transcript:


2 Transforming Teaching for the 21 st Century

3 Transformation Begins With Commitment and Courage

4 A Changing Economy Makes Education More Important

5 20 th Century Teaching Cannot Meet 21 st Century Needs

6 Effective Teachers… Engage students in active learning Use a wide variety of teaching strategies Create ambitious tasks Assess student learning continuously and adapt teaching to student needs Provide clear standards, constant feedback, and opportunities for revising work Work with colleagues to design and refine curriculum, instruction, and assessment

7 © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010 Good Teachers Matter Greatly Research finds that student learning is related to: Teachers’ strong academic background Quality preparation prior to entry Certification in the field taught Experience (> 3 years) National Board Certification In combination, these predict more of the difference in student learning gains than race & parent education combined (Clotfelter, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008).

8 Although expert teachers are the greatest influence on learning, the U.S. invests less in teaching than other countries Preparation is uneven and largely unfunded Salaries are unequal and noncompetitive Well-prepared teachers are unequally distributed by race and class Mentoring for new teachers is rare Professional development is often “hit & run” Learning & collaboration time is scarce: US teachers teach far more hours and have less prep time than any other advanced country

9 U.S. Outcomes in International Perspective (8 th Grade PISA Results in OECD Nations, 2006) Science Finland Canada Japan New Zealand Australia Netherlands Korea Germany United Kingdom U.S. is # 21 / 30 OECD nations #31 / 40 top nations Math Finland Korea Netherlands Switzerland Canada Japan New Zealand Belgium Australia U.S. is #25 / 30 OECD nations #35 / 40 top nations

10 Inequality Drives Low US Rankings

11 What are High-Achieving and Steeply-Improving Nations Doing? Universal preschool and health care Equitable funding with investments in high- need schools and students A lean curriculum & performance assessments focused on higher order skills, and developed & scored by teachers Substantial investments in initial teacher education and ongoing support Time for teacher collaboration and learning Career pathways to develop leadership

12 © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010 Student Assessment Systems Abroad Also Support Effective Teaching Assessments measure – and encourage - the full range of knowledge and skills represented in standards. Teacher scoring supports professional learning PD focuses on student learning through action research and examination of student work School-based assessments support good instruction and enhance curriculum equity.

13 © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010 The Status of Professional Development in the United States  Effective professional development is better understood but still relatively rare in the U.S.  Nearly all teachers (>90%) participate in 1 day workshops and conferences.  Fewer than 1/3 get sustained PD, get mentoring or coaching, or observe other classrooms.  Only 15% of U.S. teachers reported a great deal of cooperative effort among staff 2008 – half as many as a decade earlier.

14 What Kind of Policies Can Help?

15 No Child Left Behind: Noble Goals and Unintended Effects Goal to focus on all groups of students Demand for “highly qualified teachers,” but incentives for reducing preparation Demand for higher achievement, but incentives for -- Excluding low-scoring students -- Narrowing curriculum -- Chasing teachers from high-need schools

16 Outcomes of NCLB State scores have ‘increased’ National gains have slowed International scores have dropped Graduation rates have declined Student exclusions have increased Teacher attrition has grown

17 What Would Work?

18 NCTAF Recommendations [aka The Hunt Commission] 1.Get serious about standards for both students and teachers 2.Reinvent teacher preparation and professional development 3.Fix teacher recruitment and put qualified teachers in every classroom 4.Encourage and reward teacher knowledge and skill 5.Create schools that are organized for student and teacher success

19 North Carolina Led the Way in the 1990s Raised teachers’ salaries in the mid-1980s and again in the 1990s Increased licensing requirements for teachers and principals Created and maintained the NC Teaching Fellows Program Later created the NC Principal Fellows Program Required all schools of education to become NCATE accredited Supported professional development schools and longer clinical training

20 North Carolina’s Leadership Created teacher mentoring and assessment program Created professional development academies and the North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching; Supported teacher development networks like the National Writing Project Created the nation’s first comprehensive approach to supporting and rewarding teachers for achieving National Board Certification Invested in early childhood education

21 Outcomes of Attending to “What Matters Most” NC student achievement rose from one of the lowest-ranked states to well- above the national average Steepest gains of any state in the 1990s Largest reduction in the achievement gap of any state in that decade

22 What are the Next Horizons? Race to the Top Focuses on Using Data Effectively to Inform Change Strengthening Teacher and Leader Effectiveness Turning Around Low-Performing Schools Expanding School Options

23 What Teachers Need to Teach Powerfully Coherent, “less is more” curriculum Performance assessments that provide students opportunities to apply learning and teachers rich data about student learning School designs that support deeper learning for students and teachers Access to knowledge, coherent teaching standards, and support from good leaders Equitable resources

24 NAEP, 8 th and 12 th Grade Science 1. What two gases make up most of the Earth's atmosphere? A) Hydrogen and oxygen B) Hydrogen and nitrogen C) Oxygen and carbon dioxide D) Oxygen and nitrogen 2. Is a hamburger an example of stored energy? Explain why or why not.

25 High School Biology Exam, Victoria, Australia 3. When scientists design drugs against infectious agents, the term “designed drug” is often used. A. Explain what is meant by this term. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ______________ Scientists aim to develop a drug against a particular virus that infects humans. The virus has a protein coat and different parts of the coat play different roles in the infective cycle. Some sites assist in the attachment of the virus to a host cell; others are important in the release from a host cell. The structure is represented in the following diagram: The virus reproduces by attaching itself to the surface of a host cell and injecting its DNA into the host cell. The viral DNA then uses the components of host cell to reproduce its parts and hundreds of new viruses bud off from the host cell. Ultimately the host cell dies.

26 Analysis and Application of Knowledge B. Design a drug that will be effective against this virus. In your answer outline the important aspects you would need to consider. Outline how your drug would prevent continuation of the cycle of reproduction of the virus particle. Use diagrams in your answer. Space for diagrams is provided on the next page. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

27 Design and Scientific Inquiry Before a drug is used on humans, it is usually tested on animals. In this case, the virus under investigation also infects mice. C. Design an experiment, using mice, to test the effectiveness of the drug you have designed. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

28 Embed New Assessments in Redesigned Schools Redesign schools so that they better support teaching and learning by ensuring: -- personalization, -- time for professional learning and planning, -- more challenging and applied learning opportunities, -- more continuous relationships with families and children -- more equitable resources

29 Develop More Effective Preparation for Teachers and Leaders High-quality clinical experiences – tapping the wisdom of practice -- linked to coursework about learning of students and adults Focus learning applying specific tools in the classroom More extensive coursework in content and content pedagogy Links to curriculum and assessments Performance assessments for adults evaluating practice

30 © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010 Deepen Professional Learning Create a strong infrastructure for professional learning that is: Responsive to teacher needs Sustained and readily available Grounded in curriculum content Supportive of diverse learners Supported by coaching Connected to collaborative work in professional learning communities Integrated into school and classroom planning around curriculum, instruction, and assessment

31 Strengthen Leadership Proactively recruit and develop leaders from among expert teachers Cultivate Leadership Teams Teach leaders how to redesign schools

32 Close the Opportunity Gap Equalize funding and opportunities to learn Recruit a diverse pipeline of well-qualified teachers and leaders for every school Recommit to higher education access, expansion, and renewal that prepares our nation for today’s and tomorrow’s world

33 Tackling the Agenda that Matters Most "On some positions, Cowardice asks the question, 'Is it safe?' Expediency asks the question, 'Is it politic?' And Vanity comes along and asks the question, 'Is it popular?' But Conscience asks the question 'Is it right?' And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, but he must do it because Conscience tells him it is right." -- Martin Luther King, 1968

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