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Answer the following questions:

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1 Answer the following questions:
Briefly explain the conflict between Palestine and Israel What were some of the problems with the “boundaries” established by imperialism? The Arab state of Palestine existed until 1948 when the state of Israel was declared by the United Nations. The boundaries were drawn according to the desires of imperial powers based on resources and geography. They ignored the clashing cultural groups they put together.

2 The World Today Modern History

3 Read page 408 How many new nations are created by winning independence? What is the problem with studying recent history? Over 100 throughout the world We can not see the long term impacts of events occurring in recent history

4 The Great Liberation Colonial powers (Great Britain, France) are exhausted by WWII and let colonies go to avoid conflict decolonization Over 100 new nations after gaining independence Examples: India Nigeria Nepal Kuwait 0-3:00

5 Developing world These new nations pushed modernization characterized by stabilizing governments and developing economy

6 Cold War influences Developing nations had to determine the best governments and economic systems for themselves. Two main forces influenced them: United States: Democracy and Capitalism USSR: Communism and Socialism (Government controls production) Some nations chose to be “Non-aligned”, meaning they didn’t side with either influence. For example, India becomes a Democratic state with a Socialist system

7 Interdependence Dependence on the goods, resources and knowledge from other parts of the world. Creates problems and opportunity so many organizations are developed to deal with rising issues: United Nations World Health Organization European Community Association of Southeast Asian Nations World Bank

8 Enduring Issues Nuclear Weapons: 1945 1980 3 world wide 50,000+
Nuclear non-proliferation treaties aim to stop the spread of Nuclear weapons

9 Enduring Issues Terrorism: Deliberate use of random violence, esp. against civilians, to exact revenge or achieve political goals On the rise since the 1960’s: Palestinians killed Israel’s Olympians to protest the forming of an Israeli state

10 Enduring Issues Human Rights: Nations around the world agreed to guarantee freedom of Speech, Religion, and Press, along with the right to earn a living. “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”

11 Enduring Issues Human Rights abuses: torture and arbitrary arrests still common in developing nations. The world will use political and economic sanctions to stop abuse. Sometimes armed force is used. Ex: South Africa and Apartheid

12 Global North- Rich Global South- Poor
Economic Trends Generally speaking the world can be split into two spheres: Global North- Rich Global South- Poor

13 What is this artist trying to say?

14 Bell Ringer What does Non-aligned mean?
What are the 4 enduring issues that the world deals with today? -Nuclear weapons -Terrorism -Human Rights -Human Rights abuses What does Non-aligned mean? Why was there mass decolonization after WWII? Imperial nations like Great Britain, France and the US were tired from the War, broke and had been fighting for freedom The developing nations do not side with Democracy (USA) or Communism(USSR)

15 Global North and South North South
Rich Well Educated Good Medical care Capitalism Supply and Demand Poor Underdeveloped limited education Higher birth rate Longer life expectancy Often exploits cheap labor of Global South Dependent on north for loans, jobs, and goods North and South are interdependent- If one fails the other will follow -Oil Crisis -Great Depression -current Recession

16 Obstacles to Development
Geography Population and Poverty Economic dependence Economic policies Political instability

17 Geography Some problems with geography include: -Few resources -Difficult climates -Unpredictable precipitation

18 Population and Poverty
As medical care improves and access to food increase, the population increases. Developing nations rarely have the resources to supply exploding populations with food, housing, education and employment. Better conditions= increase population= strain resources= poverty Nearly 50% of the World population is 25 or younger What kind of strains would this have on developing nations?

19 Economic Dependence Previous Colonies are still dependent on the West for manufactured goods and Loans (used to modernize). What comes from third world nations? What comes from first world nations? Resources, new markets and labor Manufactured goods, education and loans

20 Economic Policies Many start with socialist economies; the government has a role in controlling production. Often this hinders economic growth because there is no investment capital. Many later turn to capitalism.

21 Political instability
Civil wars rage after colonial rulers part: -Dictators come to power, using state money to maintain control not help the people -Civil wars and genocide occur around the world as nationalities conflict

22 Environmental Risks Starting in people began to notice industry is negatively impacting the environment: -Chemical pesticides and fertilizers harm soil and water -Oil Spills -industry gases turn into Acid Rain -Nuclear accidents- Chernobyl- The area around Chernobyl will not be safe for humans for over 900 years

23 Green Revolution Science used to increase food production using fertilizers, pesticides and expensive irrigation systems. Many plants were genetically altered to have higher yield. Food production skyrocketed but hurt the earth.

24 Earth Summit UN sponsored conferences to discuss cleaning up and preserving the planet but many questions are raised: -Can the materialistic north sacrifice to protect the environment? -Who will help pay for cleaner production in developing nations?

25 **Turning Point of History**
There are MANY reasons WWII is considered a turning point of history: -Mass Decolonization (new nations still struggle with the effects of independence) -Cold War (persisting stigma against communists and socialism) -Nuclear Weapons (We now have the ability to quickly and completely destroy the world) -Cold war influence Developing World


27 World Economies Develop
The development of economies in the superpowers

28 What does OPEC stand for? What does OPEC do?
What two policies did Gorbechev introduce to bring change to the Soviet Union? Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Regulate the price, production and cost of Petroleum oil Perestroika- Economic reforms (privatization) Glasnost- Openness about the government Who was the first Russian President? Who is the Russian president today? The conflict in Bosnia was a genocide. What was the cause? Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin Ethnic conflict between Croats (Catholics), Serbs (Christians) and Muslims

29 World Economies Develop
The development of economies in the superpowers

30 The West The West includes the US, Britain, France, Australia, etc.
The west has seen a shift from a manufacturing economy to a service industry Service industries focus on healthcare, finance, sales, education and recreation

31 European Community In 1957 six nations agreed to form the European Community to grow trade between them. They created a common market and offered special tariffs for trade between them. In the 1990s it was renamed to the European Union and includes many more nations. The European Union regulates costs, production and prices

32 Japan After WWII much of Japan was damaged and it had lost its colonies. However, with aid from the US, Japan developed a Democracy Americans pushed social reform, promoting women’s rights, universal suffrage and education Japan’s Parliament= the Diet

33 Japan: Economic Superpower
Began making textiles but quickly moved into making cars, cameras, and technology Japanese technicians and architects work throughout the world How did Japan catch up so quickly after WWII? -highly skilled/ educated workers -spent little on military budget -economic powerhouse/ military weak

34 Bell Ringer What are two reasons that Japan was able to build a strong economy after WWII? What is the role of the European Union? What is a benefit of membership? -United States Aid and Advice -Skilled Workforce -Highly Educated It is a Trade Organization so it determines prices, costs and production. The benefit is members get reduced tariffs so trade is more profitable, boosting the economy

35 Indian Independence Gandhi led independence movement stressing passive resistance and civil disobedience In 1947 Britain divided India into Pakistan (Muslims) and India (Hindu). Millions moved according to religion Gandhi was killed trying to stress non violence among the moving religious groups.

36 Democratic India India became the world’s largest democracy. Kept many of the British Laws and government systems. Very diverse: over 1 Billion people, with over 15 languages The Nehru dynasty- for 40 years after independence the Nehru family were elected as Prime Ministers; Father to Daughter -both were assassinated

37 India’s Economy Socialist= five year plans focused on heavy industry (steel) India is experiencing quick economic growth in some areas, but much of the nation remains poor and rural. Today the Indian economy is just starting to slow down but foreign investors continue to operate factories and service centers in India

38 How does the European Union (or community) work to promote trade?
India became an independent “non-aligned” nation. What does this mean? The union reduces tariffs (taxes) between member nations, lowering prices They were not sided with either the a democratic or communist nation They were a democratic- socialist nation List 2 conflicts associated with the Cold War and the US policy of Containment What does the Global North provide to the world? What does the Global South provide the World? -Berlin Airlift -Cuban Missile Crisis -Korean War -Vietnam War -Afghanistan conflict North: Loans, medicine, goods South: New Markets, Cheap labor, resources

39 Social reforms Used Green Revolution techniques to increase food production Population increasing but 1/3 live in poverty, eating one meal per day Sons are valued in Indian Society, Why?

40 Percent living in poverty by county

41 Outlawed practices Traditional values, such as the Caste system, have been outlawed, but are still unofficially practiced. The Indian Constitution forbids the mistreatment of untouchables but attempts to integrate society have failed.

42 Egypt 99% of the population live on 10% of the land near the Nile
1950’s- Nasser created a military dictatorship and began modernizing Egypt Nasser was determined to end foreign rule and gain control of the Suez Canal “This money is ours. This canal is the property of Egypt… The Canal was dug by Egypt’s sons and 120,000 of them died while working. The Suez Canal Company in Paris is an imposter company”

43 Nasser’s Legacy Led two wars against Israel
Created a socialist state; he seized businesses and banks and land was given to peasants Built the Aswan Dam providing 2 million acres of new farmland, but destroyed much of the natural landscape Friends with the Soviets

44 Hosni Mubarak Made peace with Israel
Population growing faster than food production Mubarak controlled power and cracked down on protestors. Mubarak is eventually overthrown during the Arab Spring and replaced with a democratic government

45 Iran’s Revolution Read pages 498-499 and answer the following:
-What role did the US play in Iran’s Government in the 1950s? How did the Iranians feel about this US Role? -Why do you think the Americans got involved? -When opposition grew against the Shah, what did he do? -Study the Cause and Effect table on page 499. Draw a time line of events with at least 6 events from the Iran Revolution, causes and effects

46 When I go to the office, I put on my shirt and I take off my Caste; When I come home, I take off my shirt and put on my Caste.” What is the main idea of the Quotation? 1. The Caste system continues to influence Indian society 2. the Caste System has been reflected by most Indians 3. Successful urban workers in India belong the same Caste 4. The Indian government officially supports the Caste System

47 The rise of independence states in Asia and Africa after World War II demonstrates the
1. Failure of nationalist movements 2. influence of socialism 3. Success of United Nations peacekeeping forces 4. Decline of European colonial empires

48 Mohandas Gandhi is best known for his
1. use of passive resistance to achieve Indian independence 2. Desire to establish Islamic Nations 3. Opposition to Hindus holding political office 4. Encouragement of violence to end British rule

49 The primary goal of the Indian National congress (1855-1947) was to
1. reform the Hindu Religion 2. Partition India between Muslims and Hindus 3. Create a socialist economy 4. Gain independence from Great Britain

50 Since India’s independence in 1947, the government has had the greatest success in
Increasing the overall food production Reducing the population Eliminating religious conflict Controlling industrial pollution

51 One reason India gained its Independence from Great Britain in 1947 was that
1. Great Britain was defeated in World War II 2. The treaty of Versailles required Great Britain to give up its colonies 3. Great Britain did not have the resources to maintain an empire 4. India had supported the Axis powers during World War II

52 During India’s independence movement, Mohandas Gandhi’s boycott of British textiles and products was effective because the British considered India a major Shipping center Industrial center Market for manufactures goods Sources of mineral resources


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