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The Jungle. In Class Essay- How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the progressive movement? 1W-workers 2F- food safety 3I=immigration 4PC= political.

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Presentation on theme: "The Jungle. In Class Essay- How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the progressive movement? 1W-workers 2F- food safety 3I=immigration 4PC= political."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jungle

2 In Class Essay- How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the progressive movement? 1W-workers 2F- food safety 3I=immigration 4PC= political corruption 5BC= business corruption UP=Urban poverty CL=Child labor P=prostitution A=Alcohol

3 In Class Essay How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the progressive movement? Breen’s six characteristics of progressivism 1Concern about effects of industrialization and conditions of industrial life 2Optimism about human nature, belief in “expert” study of a problem followed by education of the public

4 In Class Essay How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the progressive movement? Breen’s six characteristics of progressivism 3Willing to intervene in people’s lives (paternalistic) 4Turned to government authority at all levels to institute reform (local, state, federal)

5 In Class Essay How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the progressive movement? Breen’s six characteristics of progressivism 5Evangelical Protestantism and natural/social science approach- idea that environment key to reform- change the environment- change the individual! 6National reach (nationwide movement) and a mass base (lots of ppl)

6 Examples of Progressivism- 2 nd Professions became more standardized, regulated: doctors had professional exams, AMA, lawyers had bar exam, teachers formed NEA, social workers formed NFS (p. 656)- education, health, child labor Temperance Movement worked to stop drinking, 2,3,4,6 alcohol WCTU

7 Examples of Progressivism- 2 nd Alice Hamilton- one of few female grads of med school, worked at Hull House, studied work- related illnesses, discovered disease caused by fumes/dust lobbied states to regulate factories to prevent this disease Social Justice Movement – General Federation of Women’s Clubs had Industrial Section & Committee on Legislation for Women & Children, pushed for laws safeguarding women & children workers, National Child Labor Committee- changes in 28 states for kids/39 for women, OFTEN overruled by courts

8 Examples of Progressivism- 2 nd Social Justice Movement – General Federation of Women’s Clubs had Industrial Section & Committee on Legislation for Women & Children, pushed for laws safeguarding women & children workers, National Child Labor Committee- changes in 28 states for kids/39 for women, OFTEN overruled by courts – Farmers joined National Farm Bureau Federation to spread information about farming, improve their lives

9 Progressives 2 nd Charity Organization Society of NY- Spring 1900 held house expo, presented new sociological data (pix, maps, stats, etc) on tenements and slum districts Politicians- Cleveland, OH Tom Johnson had panel of advisers, outdoor meetings to educate the public, began to enact public ownership of utilities (water, gas, electric, transportation) “gas & water socialism”

10 Progressives 2 nd Robert LaFollette- WI idea established 1 st industrial commission to regulate factory safety & sanitation, improved public education, worker’s compensation, public utility controls, & resource conservation LaFollette lowered railroad rates, raised RR taxes, pushed for direct primaries for governors in Wisconsin (voters would get more say), state income tax in WI. Creation of state regulatory commissions to hold hearings and take action on business practices that were hurting the public (set maximum prices, etc.) National Conference of Social Work- share methods, establish sw as a separate field

11 Progressives 2 nd Women’s Christian Temperance Union- ¼ million member, largest women’s org, joined anti-saloon league, eventually succeeded in banning alcohol in 19 states & finally helped pass 18 th Amendment- Prohibition of Alcohol Meat Inspection Act- set rules for sanitary meat packing reaction to The Jungle read by Roosevelt, he commissioned study of plants that corroborated details in TJ, social justice in form of women’s rights- American Women’s Suffrage Assoc

12 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th Amoskeag welfare & efficiency program- provided playgrounds, visiting nurses, home buying plans; dinners/picnics, baseball teams Professions- began to create standards, professional organizations- lawyers created bar association/bar exam, Women’s suffrage movement- Women’s Christian Temperance Union- wanted to prohibit alcohol, women also lobbied to eliminate prostitution

13 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th Amoskeag welfare & efficiency program- provided playgrounds, visiting nurses, home buying plans; dinners/picnics, baseball teams Professions- began to create standards, professional organizations- lawyers created bar association/bar exam, Women’s suffrage movement- in social justice movement argued needed right to vote to influence elected officials to reform/purify societypudge Women’s Christian Temperance Union- wanted to prohibit alcohol, women also lobbied to eliminate prostitution

14 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th Early 1900’s reform leagues in major cities, 1 leader advised by experts to manage various problems #4, #2 #4 (govt reform) created Natl. Municipal League forum for debate over civic reform, changes in tax laws, public ownership of utilities La Follette’s Wisconsin Idea- regulated factory safety & sanitation, Governor of Wisconsin, later Senator #4, #1 Alice Hamilton studied lead poisoning & other indus. Diseases, IL passed state law providing compensation for diseases caused by poisonous fumes & dust #2, 4, #1

15 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th John Dewey education reform, less focus on rote learning, more focus on experiential education, discovery with aid of teacher 1910 Mann Act (cong) prohibited transportation of women for immoral purposes (anti-prostitution) #6, 4, 3 Social Justice reformers formed Natl. Conference of Charities & Corrections became Natl. Conf of Social Work, formed magazine to spread ideas, created professional schools for SW #6, 3, 2 States created regulatory commissions to look over large corporations, prevent corruption #4, 6

16 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th General Federation of Women’s Clubs supported reforms to safeguard women and children workers, improve schools, insure pure food, beautify the community #1, 5, 6 Roosevelt supported Elkins Act prohibited railroad rebates, increased powers ICC, 6, 4, 1 Judge Ben Lindsay concluded children not inherently evil, shaped environment, sentenced them to education, supported playgrounds, slum clearance, public baths, technical schools

17 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th Women’s suffrage movement changed argument from natural rights to idea that women needed to vote so they could reform & purify society Tom L. Johnson (mayor of Cleveland) improved taxation, prisons, regulated utilities, cut down corruption #1, Meat Inspection encouraged by TR, set rules for sanitary meat packing & govt. inspection of meat products enc. By The Jungle Pure Food & Drug Act- b4 passed many pharmaceutical drugs used alcohol, were “undiluted frauds”, American Medical Association joined with TR to pass act requiring mfg. to list ingredients in labels #4, 6, 2 Alice Paul & Lucy Burns (congressional Union) more militant than Carrie Chapman Catt, focused on appealing to congress rather than states & picketed white house for women’s suffrage #6, 4

18 Examples of Progressivism- 6 th WCTU- encouraged passage of 18 th Amendment- Prohibition (mfg/sale of alcohol) #4,3 Square Deal – Coal miners demanded fewer hours, more pay in strike, Coal co’s refused – TR sent military told companies they had to give better wages, encouraged them to raise prices to offset wage increase #4ppl – #4 the

19 Examples of Progressivism- 8 th #1- Wisconsin Idea of Bob La Follette – regulated factory safety & sanitation, also reformed taxation system WI 1 st state income tax, (Senator, later Governor) TR reform program regulated RR’s, protected employers #1, 4 Alice Hamilton went to med school, concerned about workers, studied diseases (lead poisoning) contracted in industry, traced typhoid to flies, IL passed first state law providing worker’s comp for diseases contracted fumes & dust

20 Examples of Progressivism- 8 th National American Woman Suffrage Association- lobbied for passage of 19 th Amendment (women’s right to vote) #6, 4 Women changed argument from natural right to more pragmatic argument (a la William James)- women more moral, needed to vote to purify society #4, 5 TR trust busting- sued Northern Securities (upheld by Supreme Court) dissolved company, also suits vs. RR, tobacco, oil #4, #3

21 Examples of Progressivism- 8 th WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union) over ¼ million members #6, #3 Passed 18 th Amendment- Prohibition (mfg., sale, transport of intoxicating liquors) #4 American Medical Association (AMA) set educational requirements/standards for practice for doctors #3, #2 National Child Labor Committee- lobbied for leg. To regulate the employment & working conditions of children #1, #3, #4

22 Examples of Progressivism- 8 th Ivy Levy- incorporated public relations in PA Railroad & Standard Oil, wanted to improve relations between workers & management #1 Social Justice Movement- hoped to make laws for child labor & improve working conditions for women #3, #1 Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)- trying to unite all workers regardless of race, gender, skill to overthrow capitalist system #1 but wanted to overturn capitalism

23 Examples of Progressivism- 8 th Gas & water socialism- public ownership of utilities #1, by 1915 almost 2/3 of American cities owned their own waterworks TR helped pass Meat Inspection Act 1906 after reading The Jungle, appointed commission to study packing industry, required sanitary meatpacking, govt. inspection Pure Food & Drug Act- experimented with medicines, exposed dangers of patent medicines, required drugs to list ingredients

24 Election of 1912 Dem- Wilson Bull Moose (3 rd Party)- Teddy Roosevelt Republican- Taft Socialist- Eugene V. Debs Woodrow Wilson-won due to split of the Republican Party (Progressives vs. business conservatives)

25 Election of 1912 Roosevelt’s platform- New Nationalism – demanded a national approach to affairs & a strong president to deal with them, – efficiency in government & society, – exalted executive & expert, – urged social justice reforms to protect workers, women, and children – accepted “good trusts” Woodrow Wilson- New Freedom – emphasized business competition, – small government (states’ rights, – rein in federal authority & only use it to destroy privilege, release individual energy & restore competition)

26 Wilson as President Federal Reserve Act- Race relations- favorite movie was Birth of a Nation, Progressives, African-Americans both disappointed by his record


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