B ELL RINGER Complete “Involvement and Action” Please put your essay in the bin
T ODAY WE WILL … Analyze AP6 political culture focusing on State formation Economy Social Cleavages Country readings Notes Illustrate a country’s political culture Homework: Candidates & Referendum “voter guide” ObjectivesAgenda
T HINK /P AIR /S HARE W ARM U P 1. Pick one of the articles from the front table about the political culture of the AP6 countries 2. Read it together 3. Make some notes about what you think is important: events, people, vocab, etc. 4. Be ready to share this info when we take notes
P OLITICAL C ULTURE : POLITICAL SYSTEM, POLICY MAKING PROCESS, POLICY EXPECTATIONS Consensual Political Culture: Generally agree on How decisions are made What issues should be addressed How problems should be solved The people accept the legitimacy of the regime and the solutions to major problems. Conflictual Political Culture: Deeply divided over political beliefs Capitalism vs Communism Religious do not accept a leader of another religion
H OW DO THESE POLITICAL CULTURES R ELATE TO …? State Formation Economic Systems Cleavages
S TATE FORMATION – 3 TYPES United Kingdom Nigeria Mexico United States ColonizerColonySovereignty Iran Russia China Effects of Imperialism
The Difference between the United Kingdom, Great Britain and England Explained - YouTube
UK P OLITICAL C ULTURE Gradualism: Democracy has developed gradually over time Colonialism: Multi-ethnic society, influence of colonized Policies that are more inclusive and immigrant representation in government Ethnic tensions: Colonialism has led to a rise in nationalism, xeno-phobic reactions White vs mixed race vs immigrant – all are “English” Minority = white English Welfare State: State w/ a set of public policies designed to provide for citizen’s needs through direct or indirect provision of pensions, health care, unemployment insurance and assistance to the poor - “Social Safety Net” Collectivism - Cross-party British support for the welfare state that lasted until the late 1970s Beveridge Report – after WWII, accepted by both parties
N IGERIA VS. I RAN Conflictual State formation: 4 Republics (1999) Coup d’etat & Military Rule Diversity - religions, ethnicities, languages (linguistic) Consensual State formation: Iranian Revolution 1979 Cultural Values - community’s welfare above individual rights NigeriaIran
D EMOCRACIES United Kingdom Competitive Elections Civil Liberties Rule of Law Independent Judiciary Open Civil Society Civilian control of the military Nigeria/ Russia Competitive Elections … but missing some of the other stuff “Electoral authoritarianism” Liberal/ SUBSTANTIVEIlliberal/ PROCEDURAL
C HECK FOR UNDERSTANDING What does the state formation say about the political culture of ….? UK Iran Nigeria
MORE CENTRALIZATION LESS CENTRALIZATION Command EconomyMixed EconomyMarket Economy Private Property? Role of Government? Competition & Profit? Private Property? Role of Government? Competition & Profit?
UK E CONOMIC S YSTEM Post War World II: Collectivism Welfare State - “Social Safety Net” Safari Montage :“Thatcher Takes the Helm”: Mixed Economy http://10.193.3.241/SAFARI/montage/smp_player _frame.php?keyindex=94837&chapterskeyindex= 306313&location=005849&page=product&play=1 What are the problems now?
C HINESE ECONOMIC CULTURE Socialist Market Economy : current system Mixed economy w/ gradual infusion of capitalism, while still maintaining state control Command Economy: Government directs the economy State Socialism: Central planning focus on Marxism, Leninism
“C HINA GOES TO MARKET ” Free Markets, NOT Free People Towards free market Little political reform- oppression
S TATUS OF P RIVATE P ROPERTY Constitution of the PRC prohibited private property Confiscated private property Property was collectivized, “owned by the people” Property redistributed to the poor Communes State is the primary owner of property & means of production, people had right of use but no ownership De-collectivization of land Disbanding of communes Private production allowed Privately owned businesses Constitutional reforms for rights of ownership Enforcing the rule of law for private ownership Under MaoNow
S HOULD THERE BE PRIVATIZATION ? Efficiency Attract domestic and foreign investment Addresses market/ consumer needs Incentives for work/ innovation State industries not performing well Loss of state control Creation of oligarchs Higher unemployment Ideological inconsistency- loss of legitimacy of the CCP Creates economic inequality (regional or personal) Loss of safety net ForAgainst
“H ARMONIOUS S OCIALIST S OCIETY ” Hu Jintao New society w/prosperity & free of social conflict Sustainable development Balance economic growth and environmental concerns Less corruption Better living standards
C HECK FOR UNDERSTANDING What do the economic policies say about the political culture of ….? UK China
CLEAVAGES Social Class, Ethnic, Religious, Regional
C HINA : C LEAVAGES Divisions between race, religion, ethnic groups, social/economic groups Ethnic (Xinjiang, Tibet, Uighurs)Tibet Uighurs Generational Classes: rich vs. poor Gender Urban vs. Rural Interior vs. Coastal West vs. East
E THNIC : G UANXI, I NNER M ONGOLIA, N INGXIA, T IBET, X INJIANG Self-government in cultural affairs and some local economic decisions Subsidies to ethnic/ border regions Relaxation of one-child policy Acceptance of minority language Increased efforts to recruit more ethnic minorities into the regional & national leadership
N IGERIA : C LEAVAGES EthnicityRegionReligion Hausa-FulaniNorthMuslim YorubaCentral (SW)Both IgboSouth (EastChristian
P OLITICAL C ULTURE & S UBCULTURE Ethnic Identity Hausa-Fulani Mostly northern half of Nigeria Predominately Muslim Legacy of emirates Indirect colonial rule Subsistence farming, rural, generally undeveloped villages Yoruba Southwestern Nigeria Lagos—former capital Oba and lineage chiefs and the British Fragmenting effect of multiple ethnic identities Igbo (lbo) Southeastern part of Nigeria—OIL RICH REGION (tried to secede) Predominantly Christian. Responsive to western culture—Western educated Developed for market agriculture
The importance of ethnicity, religion, and region in the political life of Nigerians cannot be underestimated. Most contentious political issues influence and/or are influenced by these three identities. Biafran Civil War 1967-1970 Explicit ethnic overtones Eastern Igbo attempted to secede from the country
M EXICO H ISTORY Spanish colonial rule Mexican Revolution Source of National Pride able to bring together many cultures. First Revolution on Film 1917 Constitution Longest continuous one-party rule (PRI) 70+ years State control over national resources Constitution says foreign governments can not own land Banks are nationalized PEMEX: nationalized oil corporation
M EXICO : C LEAVAGES Social/Political Amerindians (indigenous) vs. Mestizos (mixed) vs. Whites (Spanish - “Espanoles”) Ethnic movements since 1990s to protest socio-economic inequality & discrimination. Zapatistas Indigenous peoples in Chiapas
C HECK FOR UNDERSTANDING What do the cleavages say about the political culture of ….? China Nigeria Mexico
C LOSURE With your partner, pick two countries that you have learned about. 1. For ONE of countries create an acrostic poem OR political cartoon that illustrates their political culture. 2. For both of the countries create a Venn Diagram that compares/contrasts their political culture.
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